Novel Mosquito Control Health Education & Ecosystem Surveillance Methods & Devices for Schools and Communities

Water Container Attachable –  

 

Health Education & Ecosystem Surveillance Methods & Devices

 

                    For the Developing World

 

 

 

Teaching about Water: The first solution suggested requires no electricity and entails using images of predatory insects to deter mosquitoes, use of such images on drinking utensils and even T-Shirts would be ideal for the purposes of teaching water hygiene.

Especially ideal, one should think, in that the use of natural predators, or at least their images, enables one to teach what is needed in regard sanitary hygiene in a more holistic way.

The use of natural, if un-appealing, images provides an inherent emphasis on ecosystem balance and presents a more positive and beneficial attitude in general towards both nature herself and in regard our own, human, relationship to that nature where balance can be communicated instead of the more common perspective delivered, knowingly or unknowingly, of there being; “bad” and toxic things in the water that make it unsanitary and unclean.

Worse, societally and culturally is that bad water is itself unnavoidably strongly associated with ones own style of living and with poverty itself and thus with ones own status in life.

 

Tracking Water Data: The same concepts apply to the tracking and logging of relevant water-related data such as water usage, rainfall, changes in the height of local water reservoirs, and observations or measurements as to available water quality, to name just a few.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

User-Empowering Mosquito/Malaria Control Concepts

for the Undeveloped (and Developed?) World

 

 

 

1)         “Danger-Ahead” – Mosquito Air-volume and Landing-zone repellant device optically triggers Anopheles’ innate and learned predator-avoidance instincts.

 

2)         “Past-life Memories” – A recent study suggests that a new category of naturally-available mosquito-repellant may exist that could then be electronically dispersed.

 

3)         “Less-Tasty Human” – Special light source re-programs Human circadian-cycle for melanin production (an Anopheles-attractant) to be out-of-phase with the peaks of Anopheles hunting cycles.

 

4)         “Night-Guardian SENTRY” – Combines electronic Mosquito-Alarm & Mosquito-Location capabilities: First it alerts, and then helps to locate, track, and target mosquitoes for elimination.

 

5)         “Night-Guardian DEFENDER” – Actively deters mosquitoes from entering an enclosed area or approaching ones personal space – resting, sleeping, indoors, outdoors.

 

6)         “Battle-Partner” – Puts the best-efforts, knowledge & dedicated efforts of millions of research dollars & thousands of experts where needed most – Combats dynamical mosquito biology with dynamic community-coordinated response capability.

 

7)*       “Guardian Personal-Perimeter Defender” – Aggressively deters mosquitoes from landing or approaching ones personal space – resting, sleeping, indoors, outdoors.

 

8)*       “Lethally-Poisonous Human” – Electronic malarial Health-Testing Device to monitor & spread a “natural immunity” that “stops parasite development” in anopheles.

 

9)*       “Extra Stuff” – Modular Add-on Safety Features & Conveniences

* ” – additional device feature that on its own may fail one or more criteria but combats malaria and/or provides other benefits.

 

 

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INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

 

 

Platform Core-Component Modularity, Commonality & Cross -Compatibility           

 

Despite there being numerous concepts herein described – a single core device IS proposed. The uniting concept joining the proposals above is that a single core-chassis be used that’s amenable to expansion and modularity of function. The above device(s) all make use of the two most common and universally encountered electronic applications in the world… light and sound. Consequently, and just as one might expect, the everyday commonality of these two technologies means that they don’t create much excitement nor receive very high marks on the futuristic sexy-technology glitziness scale. However, this taken-for-granted ubiquity and technological maturity is precisely why the core electronic components required for the above-proposed devices can deliver the most bang-for-the-buck performance. When it comes to delivering an extraordinary breadth-of-functionality to cost ratio, nothing beats the two single-most universally encountered and under-appreciated generalized areas of electronic application; those of light and sound.

 

Side-Benefit  Use as Portable-light for 3rd-World –  Although the above proposals appear widely different, their various methods of operation could each be used separately in a stand-alone device, in synergistic combinations of methods, or combined all-together in a single device. Hopefully, additional methods not described here will also be found for incorporation. Because commonly-encountered and highly cost-effective light and sound based core technologies are used, the device will be easier to upgrade. As new capabilities are added, core components can find multiple-use.

 

About sixty pages of “References & Addenda for Innocentive Malaria Proposal” have been forwarded as a separate file. Please note that this information is not, however, a simple listing of references but rather, is a synopsis of the referred sources and a compendium of relevant excerpts that are intended to be read along with this main document, “Six Solar-Powered User-Empowering Concepts Reduce Malaria Risks.”

 

 

 

    
==============================================================DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE SOLUTION(S)==============================================================

 

SOLUTION ONE

 

1)         Danger-Ahead

 

Mosquito Air-volume and Landing-zone repellant device optically triggers Anopheles’ innate and learned predator-avoidance instincts with a Projected or Displayed Image. This is the kind of idea that takes time to warm up to. It will likely start with a giggle and ends up with a; “hmmm…. I wonder?”  A Virtual-prey Test – Here’s a sneak peek, for a quick look…

 

From Article:

 

 

 

Figure 1. Apparatus for virtual-prey testing. Spider (not to scale) at top of inclined metal ramp, oriented toward one of two side-by-side virtual mosquitoes. … Inset: virtual mosquitoes in Anopheles resting posture (left) and in non-Anopheles resting posture (right). See Ref. 1. a., Pg. 3;Anopheles Mosquitoes as Prey: A Predator from East Africa that Chooses Malaria Vectors as Preferred Prey,” Ximena J. Nelson, Robert R. Jackson, (2006). PLoS ONE 1(1): e132.

 

Side-Benefit  Use as Portable-light for 3rd-World –  I started out with idea of looking into light-related ideas because I’d like to see a device that can be multi-tasked to not only deliver lighting (see Ref.’s Section 8 on Light-Related Technologies & Products- for 3rd-world lighting needs such as BoGo Light, etc.), but that might also provide a possible platform for future health tests (see Ref.’s Section 11 on Health & Other Sensor Technologies).

This concept (of using a repellent-image) really does have some potential, no kidding. I admit to being a bit insecure about proposing it so I’m going to gamble I’ll be able to get a picture into the submission-form. They say a pictures worth a thousand words… so I’m hoping the prior picture will “hook” any readers of this that might be otherwise tempted to blithely skip ahead (not a criticism, I’m skeptical about such things myself).

There’s much more information on this to be found in the “Ref’s Section 1., Visual Activation of Anopheles Predator-Avoidance Response,” but in the meantime –

 

What Might a Painted, Imprinted or Projected Image Look Like?

 

Notably, just because we “see” the world a certain way, doesn’t mean a mosquito (or spider) see’s things that way (R.Jackson,1.b., also 1.d.). There are a number of ways this might be taken advantage of, and a number of interesting possibilities for future evolution into other avenues should it prove viable as a concept. First things first, what might an application of the principle look like?

Let’s presume we’ve already found a specific pattern or range of patterns that are reasonably effective at eliciting a fear-flee-flight-response in Anopheles. This might take the form, as an example, of an actual image of a big scary spider. But more likely, there will be certain generic patterns the mosquito vision-system will be tuned for that don’t necessarily require an actual full blown spider image. Just as the prior example where the  jumping-spiders’ vision-system was tuned to be sensitive to mosquitoe-ish  45-degree angles, it’s quite likely that the equivalent cues for Anopheles can be produced that need not resemble a spider or other mosquito predator (see Section 3., Various Aquatic & Other Predators of Anopheles), perhaps a gecko (lizard), bat, dragonfly… etc. There are also visual-timing cues to be considered, for example, spider-brains are programmed for the 1-sec. rest then 1-sec groom cycles of Anopheles, what similar visual-timing cues might Anopheles be sensitized to, perhaps related to gecko eye-blinks, tail-swishing, bat-moon-shadow fluttering, dragon-fly rising upwards (only dragonflies go up vertically – they’ll chase a tennis ball thrown upwards thinking it’s a potential mate). These types of cues are discoverable without too much effort; we’ll come back to this in a moment.

Does this mean little “critter” images will be displayed all over a hut? I don’t know, but I doubt it. As just mentioned, the images might look more like a bunch of Mickey-mouse images to us and still trigger the desired response in Anopheles. It might involve getting the right combination of timing and motion… or motion and brightness, or size, or the right angle of change in motion… etc.  As to how big or small the projected image or images might need to be… that’s pretty open to conjecture as well. It may well be that the size is somewhat relative to a mosquito… if its visual system registers the image of a jumping spider, I suspect it won’t matter that if it’s a three-foot high image that’s ten feet away – the mosquito’s neuro-visual system will probably presume it to be much closer. It’s also likely that certain optical motions and timing sequences will prove effective. This doesn’t necessarily mean running an actual video, a mechanical slide-show like, or similar, system could likely do the job just as effectively and far less expensively.

 

            What Might the Device Look Like? Conceivably the proper optical images, whatever that might be, could then be projected throughout a room, onto ceilings, walls, floors, furniture, bed-nets, and even directly onto people as they sleep.

Other alternatives might be to use a light source that emits low-level UV to “charge” glow-in the dark ink-stamped, painted, or applied-sticker Anopheles-repellent patterns that perhaps could be placed around a room or even onto ones clothes.

           

What Are Some “Other” Reasons This Concept Might Be Important? 

In addition the electrical-device application, a number of other exciting POSSIBILITIES may also exist that are related to this projected-image concept! The following must still be proven to work or not, they are possibilities only;

(a) Woven Bed-net Pattern. It may be that a simple woven pattern could be incorporated into the weave of bed-nets to further reduce the likelihood that mosquitoes will want to land on it. This could be especially beneficial in those situations where the insecticide that is typically incorporated into the bed-net fibers has been washed out (See Ref. #10 – Mosquito Net Info & Contacts).

(b) Glow-in-Dark Pattern. Its worth noting that to humans, such a pattern may resemble assorted dots more than say, spiders. It’s also possible that simple glow-in the dark predator-like spots could be added to bed-nets that would prove effective.

(c) Special Light Source to Charge Glow-in-Dark Repellent Pattern. If so, then a low-level night-light-like light source might use a specific wavelength (perhaps UV) specifically to charge the “glow-in-the-dark” chemical compounds used to re-emit the light.

(d) Electrical Bed-net uses Light-emitting Fibers and Repellent Patterns. Alternately, it may be that a bed-net or tent material or bedspread could have inherent light-producing ability (see Ref. 8. Light-Related Technologies & Products).

(e) Optical Patterns as Attractants. This same (predator-image visual repellent) principle might be used as an attractant… instead of a predator-like image, a come-hither type of image might work, possibilities include; images of a potential food source, a mate or swarm of mates, egg-laying site, or a safe-haven hibernation, rest and/or hiding area. Additional possibilities for attractant (as well as repellent) images may be awaiting discovery as the result of the discussion in the following proposal, number (2), (i.e.; aquatic food-targets might be considered – I don’t want to say any more though, it would ruin the surprise).  What use might an attractant surface (image) be? An attractant surface could be beneficial for targeted delivery of insecticides or even better, naturally lethal agents such as fungi (see Ref. # (5. b.) “Can fungal bio-pesticides control malaria?”).

(f). Large Images Effective from Far-off. It may be that the visual system can be fooled at a distance. It may be possible to have a certain pattern on a door, or bed-net, or as a decoration around a window that tricks the mosquito visual system into misjudging the distance and size of the image.

(g). Near/Far Imbedded-image Repellent/Attractant Patterns Effective over Variable-distances. It may also be possible to create a sequence of image overlaying each other from large to small so that as the image is approached there would be a sequence of “correctly-proportioned” images for every distance within the visual range – almost hologram-like by analogy. In other words, a mosquito might be able to see a 5 ft. high spider from twenty feet away, but not at ten feet. So, within the 5 ft.-high image there could be a two-foot high image, and within that, a one-foot high image, etc., so as the image is approached a properly proportioned shape always remains visible.

(h) Static Painted and Stamped Images/Patterns, Stickers. It may even be possible to make use of small or large stickers with appropriately-repellant images (to Anopheles), or to paint these patterns onto key areas – although not directly device-related, it could be beneficial if it were to make a persons home/hut and/or sleeping area twenty or thirty-percent more safe. Both hand-made stamps using local materials and manufactured rubber stamps could be used to create stamped images very inexpensively. It might also be possible to use electric or mechanical devices that stamps and inks images or creates stickers.

 

How Effective Can Such a Silly-Sounding Thing Be?

Good question! The idea of being able to project an image that a mosquito would find distasteful or even frightening might seem odd… and there’s the question of effectiveness. As to this last issue of effectiveness; it’s worth considering that we are talking about a “mosquito-brain,” and millions of years of instinctive programming – so it’s not unreasonable to think, based on the research (Sec. 1., a.– e.) already done and common-sense that once that little brain is triggered by the right cue that it’s probably pretty unlikely that a lot more thought is going to go into the matter of whether to flee or not.

For example; hunting spiders with their spider-brains manage to be on the look-out for, and able to detect the 45-degree angle that Anopheles always hold their abdomens up at (as bloodsuckers with extra long proboscis they have to). Regular (nectar-sucking) mosquitoes hold their abdomens level, so the spiders specifically look for mosquitoes with their “butts” up in the air at a 45-degree angle so they can sneak up behind them.

The answer to “How effective?” remains to be determined, but some conjecture is warranted. It’s possible, for example, that it could prove quite a bit more effective than one might think. One can hope that those mosquito-brains might be pretty dependable to react in specific and consistent ways to the right visual cues. Alternately, in the worst case; the net result might be minimal, with minimal meaning that distress is caused in only… pick-a-number percent; let’s say fifty percent as a thought-experiment. Even so, there will, I would argue, some reasons to give this some serious thought. It’s simple. It can be based on a portable-light type of device, which has additional potential uses in many undeveloped areas (see Sec. 8., Light-Related Technologies & Products, BoGo, other).

Now here’s where my communication skills, or lack of them, come into play because “nuance” is relevant here. This is perhaps more important than the effectiveness, whether it’s 50% or 90%… the projection of a natural predator-type image as a deterrent to a prey-vector (Anopheles)… the concept itself  “implicitly” communicates to the users a potentially very useful/important/beneficial “meme” or concept that may be of great value, especially in third-world environments.

Also, even moderate success means that local craftsmen may pick up on the idea, which opens up another whole line of possibilities – But let’s finish discussing the nuts & bolts issues first.

An Attempt at “Nuance” – Some methods of mosquito control can be difficult to explain in non-technological terms, and even harder to understand from an indigenous perspective. People sometimes presume they have a common understanding when no such understanding truly exists. This is particularly likely when great cultural distances separate the parties.

Therefore, a (possible, side) benefit of this (image deterrent/attractant) concept and device may be that its principle of operation will be readily explainable to, and readily understood by, indigenous peoples around the world; an understanding not affected by technological or cultural distances because its core operational idea employs phenomenological concepts that, being nature-based, are universally accessible, observable, and shared by all. The ability to provide for an improved understanding means that persons living in the most remote and undeveloped regions of the world will be better-able to pursue this method of dealing with the mosquito problem to its full potential, whatever that may be.

Fully understood in this fashion, it’s possible that the general concept (“meme”  or method) may even find application to other unrelated problems where the end-goals of living creatures and/or biological processes are synergistic with ones own end-goals and needs.

As with any new way of looking at a problem, people will surely seek to make use of and improve upon it. New and unexpected applications or solutions may arise.     Ideally, exposure to this new way of looking at and dealing with the mosquito problem will inspire local craftsmen and artisans to apply their skills and knowledge in the use of local materials and create their own innovative (and perhaps even surprising) solutions – solutions that will be even more ideally suited and specific to their particular situation and needs.

By sensitizing indigenous/rural/3rd-world peoples to this new way of addressing the problem, the likelihood is increased that a particularly observant individual may happen across the right rare or common circumstance and be able to recognize its potential value as a new ecological or biological means of dealing with mosquitoes, or of solving some other problem of consequence – and perhaps even provide the world with a significant new biological discovery as a side benefit!

 

 

What’s needed to get started? What’s needed to Evaluate the Concept?

 

Very Little – The experiments to at least demonstrate the core principle should be straightforward enough since they will be almost identical to the studies in the attached references. It shouldn’t take a lot of money or time to have one or more of the same researchers as in references 1.a., 1.b. & 1.c. conduct a few studies to at least validate the general concept. The researchers in these particular studies hail from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Kenya.  I’ve included some initial contact information.

Beyond that, a full evaluation of all the possibilities would take a little longer and some additional expense, but this could come after the validation. Presumably there’d be some significant interest from the research community at that point to help speed things along and would likely also open paths for additional financial resources and research grants.

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SOLUTION TWO

 

2)         Past-life Memories

 

Do Adult Anopheles Respond to the Chemical & Olfactory Cues of Aquatic Predators from its Prior Egg, Larva, and Pupa Aquatic Existence?

 

 

Unbelievably: A recent study suggests just this – that a new category of natural locally-available mosquito-repellants may exist that could then be electronically dispersed. Quite incredibly, this study indicates that it’s indeed highly probable (actually, it’s almost a certainty based on core evolutionary principles and other suggestive Anopheles studies, see Ref. 2. b.)  that the programmed (innate, instinctive) and imprinted (learned) memories of Anopheles from its three aquatic stages of development: egg, larva, and pupa remain accessible to the adult (final, 4th stage) Anopheles.

 

Check this out…

 

(See Ref. 2. a.) “Can Moths Or Butterflies Remember What They Learned As Caterpillars?” ScienceDaily (Mar. 8, 2008) Journal reference: Blackiston DJ, Silva Casey E, Weiss MR (2008) Retention of Memory through Metamorphosis: PLoS One

 

Based on the research so far (Also see Ref. 2. Adult Mosquito Visual & Chemical/Olfactory Larval Memories as Possible New Category of Repellant) it appears that the chemical, visual, and auditory sensations, experiences, behaviors and even preferences of aquatic Anopheles continue on in the adult. This means it’s not unreasonable to expect that the same chemical, visual and auditory sensations that formerly indicated an aquatic threat (both learned and instinctive) and initiated predator-avoidance behaviors will (most-likely) also work on the adult.

 

Why Might This Be Significant? The range of potential signals and predators thus opened up covers an impressive range, from the microscopic (protist) to the macro (invertebrate and vertebrate) – from water-mites to tadpoles and herons. Perhaps even more importantly, water is many orders of magnitude more effective at transference of certain signals than air, such as chemical signals for example ( See Ref. 3., Various Aquatic & Other Predators of Anopheles ).

Research has previously shown that adult egg-depositing females have demonstrated preferences for certain water conditions and can even sense when a body of water contains certain aquatic predators – these results now make perfect sense (i.e.; “responded to water in which conspecifics had been preyed upon,” from Ref. (2. b.) “Antipredator Responses and the Perception of Danger by Mosquito Larvae,” Andrew Sih, Ecology, Vol 67, No 2 (Apr 1986) pp 434.).

 

Use of Locally Available Materials – Once suitable visual, auditory, vibratory, olfactory and chemical cues have been identified, especially the chemical and olfactory cues could prove useful and it’s likely that the sources of these cues can be harvested locally for use. This might be as simple as collecting certain kinds of beetle to be ground up; or growing a supply for later harvesting in jars. It’s possible that just the water that certain predators live in might suffice in some cases as a deterrent.

 

Dispersal and Application Methods – might be as simple as using the water that the predators live in as a repellant surface-spray. Perhaps body-sprays or powders could be used – or an essence might be dispersed electronically in a humidor/vaporizer. It might involve simply having a small aquarium-like bowl with living predators nearby, or even better, growing a supply for perpetual harvesting.

 

Why Else Might This Be Significant? The first proposal, involving the projection of static or active visual optical cues to elicit a predator-avoidance instinct in the adult anopheles now has a whole new range of aquatic predator-avoidance instincts that may be accessible (see Ref.’s 2. and 3.; for example; (2. c.) “Anti-Predator Behavioral Responses of Mosquito Pupae to Aerial Predation Risk”, Iñaki Rodríguez-Prieto.

 

 

What’s needed to Get Started; to Evaluate the Concept?

Very Little – The research studies here-provided include contact information for the researchers. It would be advisable that a number of different researchers and a number of different target underwater predators be evaluated for their chemical/olfactory and visual effects on adult Anopheles. The individual studies will require minimal time and investment to evaluate the concept. Even as a group, the total cost and time should not be extreme, and as before, because this research will be breaking new ground, there should be considerable interest by researchers and the opportunity of securing additional funding from numerous sources.

  
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SOLUTION THREE

 

 3)        How to be a Less-Tasty Human

 

Human circadian-cycle for melanin production (an Anopheles-attractant) is re-programmed to be out-of-phase with the peaks of Anopheles hunting cycles.

 

 

Light-therapy of a specific (blue) frequency should be able to inhibit and actively counteract resonances with the Anopheles and Human Circadian clocks!  See references; 4.  a. – b.; Making Humans Less Appealing to Anopheles by Retinal Stimulation with Blue Light. Reference 4. b. speaks to the dynamical, evolutionary, and ecological aspects that may be involved. Reference 4. a. addresses the blue-light technology and effect on melanin specifically.

It may be that addition of a Blue-boost light for two or three hours every night, added to the regular illumination provided by a BoGo-like light device, might be all that’s needed to achieve the desired goal – this would be ideal in that a whole family could potentially receive the benefit.

An obvious benefit of this proposal would be its simplicity. This particular method is unlikely to reduce bites by >90% in a lab setting, but the method could potentially provide a full-time, everywhere, 24-hour reduction of the likelihood of being bitten of perhaps ten, twenty, or thirty-percent for whole families at a time, both day AND night. This would seem to be ball-park competitive with  >90% bite-reduction that’s limited to a working within a confined-area and even then, for only for a portion of every night.

 

Side-Benefit as a Portable-light for 3rd-World Use Plus there’s the key benefit of also being able to provide a modular, multi-application tool that can be used to deliver a portable light in undeveloped areas (Ref. 8. Light-Related Technologies & Products, BoGo, etc.) that’s also very important, in and of itself.

 

 

What’s needed to get started? What’s need to Evaluate the Concept?

Very Little – Setting up a simple and straightforward study protocol will be the key. Ideally, it may be possible to simply “add-on” to existing studies now being undertaken (see below). For example; while studying the effect of light on the human circadian cycle and melanin production, the research subjects could be used to determine their degree of “attractiveness” to hungry Anopheles. This doesn’t necessarily mean that test subjects must subject themselves to being bitten, although it’s not uncommon for this to be part of a studies protocol. Use of two or three subject-attractants can be used to determine the vector (Anopheles) direction. At its most basic, a validation experiment might just involve sending the sweat/blood/urine/saliva/exudates from light-study participants in (currently) unrelated research efforts to Anopheles researchers. For more information see; 12. e., below, and 4. a., “Alteration of Human Circadian Rhythms and Melatonin with Light, Article: New Math: Two Plus Two Equals Three,” Mariana Figueiro, Rensselair Lighting Research Center.

 

Also, there are programs whose charter is to specifically assist and help speed the development and investigation of light-related ideas such as this, as well as the other ideas herein proposed – such as the use of projected images to repel/attract mosquitoes. One such program is described in reference 12. e.See for example Lighting Technology Greenhouse (LTG).  Lighting Technology Greenhouse (LTG) is a program of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Lighting Research Center (LRC). They provide a number of low-cost and no-cost services.

                      
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SOLUTION FOUR

 

4)         “Night-Guardian Broad & Local Area SENTRY

 

Combination Electronic Mosquito-Alarm & Mosquito-Location Device: First it alerts, and then it helps to locate, track, and then target mosquitoes for elimination – and potentially MUCH MORE.

 

 

Broad-Area and Local-Area Sentry Settings: Combines electronic Mosquito-Alarm & Mosquito-Location capabilities: First it alerts, and then helps to locate, track, and target mosquitoes for elimination.

 

What Might It Look Like?

A cursory patent search was done and, unexpectedly, nothing was found to prevent filing on this concept. One patent mentioned a listening device for placement in an insect trap to detect the difference in the sounds made by blood versus nectar seeking species of mosquitoes (See Ref. # 7 Cursory Patent Search of Related Areas). Also, a number of listening and sound-amplification devices are shown in Ref. #9, Sound & Other Sensors, Mechanisms, & Related Devices – there are even some pictures!

 

Broad-Area Sentry Setting: Combines electronic Mosquito-Alarm & Mosquito-Location capabilities: First it alerts, and then helps to locate, track, and target mosquitoes for elimination. A sound-detector can be tuned to only respond to Anopheles and can exclude other flying pests and non-bloodsucking mosquitoes; Filters can deal with non-mosquito sounds. (See Ref.’s 7 & 9).

 

As a Passive-Alert Device: Once so alerted, room inhabitants can use the device to indicate where in the room the insect or insects are. As the device sits, on the floor or on a table, for example, in addition to an alert-sound it can have 4 to 6 indicator lights that indicate the direction the sound or sounds are being detected. This means that if one or more mosquitoes have landed, the device could indicate the last direction the sound(s) came from and indicate (the direction) where they landed. Significantly, this means that if Anopheles most-frequently comes in through a particular window, hole in a wall, hut-roof to wall juncture, or wall to floor gap (see reference 13., “Anopheles Behavior, Biology & Epidemiology.”), then this pattern can be noted and corrected.

 

As an Active-Alert Device: Once the alarm and lights go off, one or more of the room inhabitants can then pick it up hold it in one hand while picking up a swatting device in the other hand, or a second person help by holding the device or can be the designated swatter. Held in this fashion, the device can help a room’s inhabitants to “home-in” on airborne or recently-landed mosquitoes.

 

Side-Benefit  Use as Portable-light for 3rd-World –  Provision of a flashlight function for the device would be of obvious benefit in helping to visually locate night-time mosquitoes as well as for other general-purpose lighting needs.

 

Local-Area Passive Perimeter-Defense Setting: By changing the settings, the device alarm-function can be worn around the neck or perhaps attached to a belt or hat. In this way adults or children can be protected out-of-doors using the alert/alarm function. This could prove especially useful if the danger is known to be high due to the season or if there’s an increased incidence of disease or an outbreak of exceptional severity. By “passive,” what is meant is that the device itself is passive except in its acting to notify the “user” to take appropriate defensive or offensive actions.

 

 

What’s the Big Deal?  What’s so special about this concept?

 

Dynamic, Empowering, Interactive and Educational versus Static Solutions:

I’d hoped to write a Netlogo program to demonstrate the long-term dynamics of how concepts such as this can influence complex outcomes and behaviors. These last device concepts four, five and six are why I included Ref.’s # 5. a. – f.; Biological Studies: Autonomous-Agent Computer Models, Non-Linear Dynamics, Complexity, Chaos & Game Theory, and Ref. # 6.  a. – h.; Computer Models.

I’d also hoped to speak more about Ref. #13. Anopheles Behavior, Biology & Epidemiology (pg. 49) and describe more precisely how changing the level of awareness and the behaviors of people has the potential to dramatically reduce the number of bites.

I doubt my writing/research skills are up to describing concepts four, five and six as well as I’d like and to the degree that they likely deserve; which is a shame because they truly have great potential, despite their surface simplicity… in particular they empower and engage the human dynamic that is so critical to the combat against malaria in the developing nations.

Here in the U.S., the N.I.H. and N.S.F. have estimated in studies that as much as 30% of disease is easily preventable by the prescriptions people already have but don’t take, and doctor’s visits that aren’t followed up on, etc. – the same has been shown in numerous studies on the prevalence/use (or lack of use) of available bed-nets in the developing nations. The point here is that people are people, and those in the developing are the same as we are; no better, no worse, no more responsible, no less, in these matters. An interactive device that’s empowering can improve and help to change these less-than-ideal human behaviors and tendencies.

 

What on earth are you really trying to say when you speak so abstractly of “dynamic” versus “static” solutions?

SPECIFIC EXAMPLES> In more concrete, down-to-earth terms; The huts/homes often provide for vector entry through doorways, windows, and especially the roof-to-wall eves as examples (see Ref. 13.).  Notably, a great number of these problems are addressable and well within the existing capabilities and resources of the local peoples, however, in many cases these problems simply aren’t dealt with as aggressively as they should be. This is where these last two devices have the potential to shine – They have the potential to change how the people involved deal with and think about the malaria and mosquito problem and to better appreciate what their available options are.

On ones own it can be very difficult and exhausting to undertake the type of aggressive and labor-intensive manual mosquito eradication efforts that may be required to deal with frequent and overwhelming mosquito infiltrations where the task may seem insurmountable. The undertaking of such efforts may seem especially hopeless if the chances of success are perceived as being low due to the difficulty of ones being able to see and then kill the mosquitoes in a reasonable period of time with a minimal degree of effort. This device could be a big help in this regard. This device could even make the task fun! It’s not hard to picture children competing for the opportunity to use the device and be charged with the responsibility of its use in defending the family. This would easily be fun enough to be the type of chore that children can be assigned to undertake, enjoy, and take pride in doing well.

 

 

What’s needed to get started? What’s need to Evaluate the Concept?

 

Very Little – The acoustic listening and directional technology required is fairly easy to obtain, inexpensive, ubiquitous and off-the-shelf. For additional information see references; 7. a.– b. Cursory Patent Search of Related Areas, pg. 29; 8. a.– i., Light-Related Technologies & Products, pg. 30; 9. a.– g. Sound & Other Sensors, Mechanisms, & Related Devices, pg. 36.

Evaluation of prototype devices can be undertaken at numerous facilities (See References 1-5, pages 2-24 for contacts).


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SOLUTION FIVE

 

5)         Night-Guardian DEFENDER

 

Actively deters mosquitoes from entering an enclosed area and from approaching out in the open from a distance – indoors or outdoors, resting or sleeping.

 

 

Revisiting Prior Efforts. Prior devices have attempted mimic the acoustic sounds of mosquito predators to repel Anopheles. Some devices have sought to produce acoustic vibrational frequencies to mimic the beating of a dragonfly wings and other devices have attempted to mimic the acoustic sonar of bats. Neither of these strategies proved effective enough to see commercial success as a mosquito repellent.

In a sense, this would not be a novel approach; however, it may be that the acoustic vibrations were not of the proper fidelity to accomplish the goal. Just because a sound is recognizable to a human as being like that of a dragonfly doesn’t necessarily mean that it sounds like a dragonfly to a mosquito. Even a correct sound reproduction on an oscilloscope cannot show the whole picture since an oscilloscope typically is set to a certain frequency or range of frequencies.

(a) There are microscopic vortex motions created in air by the flapping of a predator’s wing, such as a bird, bat, or dragon-fly – that a speaker may have difficulty reproducing exactly – it’s possible that a mechanically-flapping wing might be able to accurately reproduce this sound.

(b) Its also possible that an appropriately designed speaker and sound-recording, using a cone or ribbon, might be able to reproduce the minutiae sounds that occur in actual wing-beats and thereby activate a predator-avoidance instinct in Anopheles.  Micro-ribbon-speakers (cone-less; a metallic ribbon suspended between magnets) might be able to reproduce the ultra-high vibrational frequencies needed that conventional speakers could not (Carver Sound Systems or one of the large electronic firms such as Sony, Panasonic, etc., might be willing to help design such a custom application at little cost if approached).

 

Broad and Local-Area Deterrent Settings: Adults or children can be protected out-of-doors or in-doors using this deterrent function. Use outdoors could prove especially useful if the danger is known to be high due to the season or if there’s an increased incidence of disease or a regional malarial outbreak of exceptional severity.

 

 

What’s needed to get started? What’s need to Evaluate the Concept?

               Initially, Very Little – Again, the initial proof-of-concept demonstration can be kept simple by seeking to determine, (a); whether there is any difference in discrimination by Anopheles between actual dragonflies and the recorded sounds and the influence of fidelity.

As described previously, the evaluation of prototype methods and devices can be undertaken at numerous facilities (See References 1-5, pages 2-24 for contacts).

Some mechanisms and devices that are similar or analogous in nature are provided in 9. a.– g.; Sound & Other Sensors, Mechanisms, & Related Devices.

Subsequent to this initial proof-of-concept determination of what’s required to produce the desired actively repellent effect, then a more involved effort could be undertaken to design a suitable device for mass-production.

                       
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SOLUTION SIX

 

 

6) The Guardian Battle-PartnerWATER RISK-METER & Malarial Risk-Meter

 

 

The best-efforts, knowledge & dedicated efforts of millions of research dollars & thousands of experts are put right where needed the most – Directly into the hands of those on the front lines! This device gives a simple, universally understandable indication of changes to the degree of Malarial Risks that ones self & family are exposed to as those changes occur in real-time on a night-by-night basis.

 

 

A WATER RISK-METER or Malarial Risk-Meter – can tap into and empower the human potential that’s an integral part of any long-term solution to the malaria problem – biological dynamical systems require real-time responses, not static prevention tactics.

To calculate the malarial-risk it uses the nightly infestation measurement data from the previously-described method/device #4.; “Night Guardian.”

Night-Guardian devices that incorporate this additional malarial risk-meter capability can be of two types; unlinked and linked. Linked devices would have an additional ability to communicate and relay data between each other.

           

Risk Display: The device is to provide a VERY simple and universally-readable indicator-readout of a households’ actual real-time measured risk of disease (i.e.; a display can show a row of red/green indicator lights).

Risk Calculation: Minimally, the device can simply provide a direct linear measure of the magnitude of an infestation (number of nightly visitations). Although the readout display must remain universally-readable and simple, the actual calculations undertaken to determine the readout of that display can be as simple or as complicated and comprehensive as one might wish. With little additional effort, a number of additional key factors could be used in this type of calculation. In calculating malarial risks, it’s important to note that the device (See #4.; “Night Guardian.”) will likely also be able to distinguish between different mosquito species (See Ref. #7.a.) and take this into account as part of its calculations.

Some examples of the types of additional data and information that might be included in such a calculation are; the actual geographical region; season/month; date/day, time/hour; historical regional disease prevalence; number of people in the family, their ages and sex, and; behavioral variations specific to the local Anopheles species. Data-log measurements would (inherently) encompass; mosquito number; temporal periodicity (or its lack) in vector count and activity, and; inferred variations in Anopheles metabolic energy as peaks and variations in intensities (see Ref. #13 & also 4.a.).

 

Unlinked Device – Benefits of Use: The ability to actually see and receive the benefit of immediate feedback will confer a dramatically enhanced self-monitoring capability for individuals, families, communities, health-care workers, and government oversight agencies. The device can help to further insure, encourage, motivate and enable not just its own continued long-term use but would also encourage equal diligence in other prophylactic measures by communicating the risks in a tangible, understandable and meaningful way. This immediate networked feedback ability would have the potential to successfully increase awareness not just of malarial risks, but also of what can be done to avoid those risks. Safety and risk-prevention devices and actions are often neglected and fall into disuse after a time; the capacity for real-time feedback would help to insure the continued long-term vigilant use of the devices. Real-time risk monitoring and feedback would make regular use of the device directly and meaningfully pertinent in an engaging and dynamic way to the users of each device, to entire communities, and whole regions – everyone in a community stands to benefit from the use of each individual device by each individual user or family.

The provision of immediate feedback is a valuable service that speaks directly and meaningfully to a family’s intense personal self-interests and keen desire to avoid the debilitating disease of malaria. Feedback that’s immediate, observable, and track-able can make the risk from mosquito infestation and malaria palpable, measurable, and experientially visible. The risk and danger become REAL – no longer a distant, ghostly, abstraction, the presence of risk would be made tangibly felt.

For household’s inundated by mosquitoes and situations where there is resistance to using the device for whatever reasons, its worth pointing out that there will also be the power of group-thinking at play; if even one family in a village uses it and suffers from fewer bites, then this will lead, over time, to its adoption by most, if not all, within a village. Even if one chooses to turn the alarm function off, then the device can still simply log the data on the infestation for the benefit of everyone else in ones community, as well as one’s self. These are but few of the many ways this type of device can both empower and enable persons to more actively take charge and manage their risk exposure through self-monitoring. It’s hoped that data from “Night Guardians” would work synergistically within the dynamical system of human psychology and enable an “autocatalytic empowerment” to occur within families and communities.

 

Linked Devices – Community Benefits: The information that linked devices can deliver would be invaluable to BOTH researchers and locals. A particularly exciting possibility is to use a local-area signal to link these devices within a village or whole neighborhoods to take advantage of the ecology of Anopheles – they are cyclic in their mating, feeding, and egg-depositing behaviors, but these cyclic behaviors vary from area to area and from species to species and can be quite unpredictable; See Ref. # 13 Anopheles Behavior, Biology & Epidemiology. By linking these devices a powerful new community-wide warning and response capability is provided.

Once a community is so forewarned, a number of new actions and response capabilities become possible to consider. It may be that some persons make infrequent use of their alarm devices either because of laziness or because the infestation isn’t usually that severe – but a linked device could let them know when there’s a special situation or time that they need to be extra alert and make use of the device, such as on a particular evening. These are but a few of the reasons why providing real-time feedback of ones malarial-risk as a consequence of exposure to Anopheles could be hugely important; it educates, empowers, enables & encourages autocatalytic self-empowerment, and; it replaces conventional static prevention tactics against dynamical mosquito biology with a real-time community-coordinated response capability.

Presuming a device is able to share data with other nearby devices, a family could then easily compare their situation with that of their neighbors without needing to continually physically visit potentially dozens of nearby domiciles. Seeing that ones own degree of risk is many times greater than ones neighbors would be a significant inducement to improve the situation – such as by closing up some of the gaps in a wall that one has previously chosen to ignore or put off. Furthermore, a community can use the timing and pattern information the linked devices provide to let them know it would be a good time use costly insecticides that may be in short supply, or they will know to treat the local water supply because they will be forewarned and know that egg-laying (ovipositing) is occurring or will be occurring soon, or to take other such corrective actions.

 

Community-wide Real-time Monitoring System – One Possible Future Application: There may be other still to be discovered methods of control that become possible once a community-wide real-time monitoring system is in place. The following (very) rough hypothesis can serve as an example of the type of application that may be possible once this type of device is deployed in the field:

As described in Ref. #5. a.; “People, who live in areas where malaria is prevalent, can develop a natural immunity that stops the development of the parasite in the mosquito. This prevents the parasite from spreading further.” This information raises the question, if a certain number of persons in a village can be presumed to have the above-described immunity, then might there be a way to use this against the malarial vector (anopheles)? Might it be possible to cause an “epidemic” of this natural immunity to spread within the human/mosquito populations in a community or region? Even without knowing which persons have this natural immunity, might a “reverse” epidemic that stops the development of the parasite in the mosquito be instigated by having everyone switch their homes and where they sleep for a few strategically-timed evenings? Might this be accomplished by simply letting people know at what times it would be most beneficial to switch their sleeping quarters with others, like a game of musical chairs?

 

Local-Area Signal Options: A suitable local-area signal could take numerous forms. The idea is to enable information to be jointly shared between nearby devices so that anopheles and human behavior patterns can be noted that might otherwise go completely unnoticed.

Acoustic Link: A microphone can listen for the alarms of other nearby devices and information can be encoded in those alarm-soundings that are understandable by other nearby devices (a sound-filter would be tuned to listen for distant alarms).

Radio Link: Note that a local-area radio-link doesn’t require even the minimal sophistication of a walkie-talkie, although provision of a full-blown local-area walkie-talkie (voice communication) function might be worth considering as an add-on because it would be considered a significant benefit in many areas. At a minimum, a simple local-area radio data-link device-to-device notification can be added at little expense.

 

 

What’s needed to get started and evaluate the concept?

To Add this Functionality, Almost Nothing No additional research is needed in order to add the functionality required to make a Night-Guardian into a linked or unlinked Battle-Partner – all of the required technologies and expertise are easily available and off-the-shelf As described previously, the evaluation of prototype methods and devices can be undertaken at numerous facilities (See References 1-5, pages 2-24 for contacts). Also, some mechanisms and devices that are similar or analogous in nature are provided in 9. a.– g.; Sound & Other Sensors, Mechanisms, & Related Devices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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SOLUTION SEVEN *

 

7)*       “Guardian Personal-Perimeter Defender– is an additional device feature that on its own may fail one or more contest criteria but that nonetheless combats malaria in other ways and/or provides other benefits.

 

Personal Perimeter-Defense Function: Aggressively acts to deter mosquitoes from approaching ones personal space, indoors or outdoors – ideal when resting or sleeping, indoors or outdoors. 

 

 

Active Personal Perimeter-Defense: In our technologically-modern world we tend to believe that a thing has to be the “latest & most advanced” to have a chance of working. The idea here is to mimic, reproduce or simulate a “swatting, nipping, scratching, tail-swishing, fluttering and/or flapping” air motion to actively ward-off any mosquito that comes within a safe-zone perimeter or that seeks to land on or near a user.

By providing an active personal perimeter defense function, the device could be worn around the neck, be set near the exposed areas of ones head, arms or legs, or be attached to a belt or hat. Adults or children could be protected out-of-doors or in-doors using this active-deterrent personal-defense function on a device. This could prove especially useful if the danger is known to be high due to the season or if there’s an increased incidence of disease or an outbreak of exceptional severity.

Electronic Reproduction(a) Sound-speakers might be able to do the job if they are specially-designed to produce percussion-action extra-long-stroke cone motions. The goal here is to initiate a “startle” reflex in Anopheles as the result of a “blast” of air produced by a specially-designed speaker or other system. Notably, the goal here specifically isn’t to produce sound as was the goal in solution five, “Night Defender,” which sought to mimic the acoustic sounds of mosquito predators (beating of dragonfly wings, bat wings, bat sonar) to repel Anopheles.

Electro-Mechanical Simulation – If not a speaker-like device, then (b) an actual mechanically simulated swatting, flapping, or fanning device might be needed.

Still another option might be to utilize a (c) pulsating/periodically-rotating circular fan. Also, if a stream of air is of sufficient speed, might an (d) air-flow stream (as produced by a circular fan) serve to cover a person in a sort of protective blanket?

Intelligent-Response – The Anopheles neuronal instinctive-responses may (likely) be entirely different for the various situations of; (1) exploratory-flying versus; (2) pursuit-flying versus; (3) flying-about-to-land-and-feed versus; (4) flying-about-to-land-and-hide/rest  versus; (5) just-landed-to-feed versus; (6) just-landed-to-hide/rest versus; (7) post-landed-feeding versus; (8) post-landed-hiding/resting versus; (9) post-fed-flying versus; (10) hungry-flying.

It may be that (e) a combination of acoustic sounds and air-percussion-like motions will activate the innate and/or learned Anopheles predator-avoidance instincts during one or more of the situations 1-10, just described, where sounds or percussion alone will not.

It may be that a different flying/wing-beat sound pitch or pattern is detectable by microphone that can discriminate “(2) pursuit-flying” and/or “(3) flying-about-to-land-and-feed” and/or “(5) just-landed-to-feed” from other flying sound-patterns. If so, then it would be possible to (f) activate the devices active-defense air-blast function specifically only when these sounds are detected.

 

Whether created by speakers, fans, or mechanical wings; these types of “active protection” would enable a mosquito no-land and no-fly perimeter to be set by a user that creates a safe-zone covering all or part of that person, child or infant, day or night, indoors or out.

 

 

What’s needed to get started, to evaluate the concept?

               Very Little – Initially all that must be determined is (1); the extent and type of “air-blast” effect that’s needed to provide a deterrent effect and, (2); what speeds of air flow and/or variations of air pressure result in various degree’s of deterrence. This information almost certainly already exists and is available in the public domain or privately by a mosquito-control company. Also, the needed data should already exist that describes the (3) variations of Anopheles instinctive responses under situations 1-10. Should any of this data be found to not exist, then the additional expenditure necessary to determine, for example, whether it’s possible to discriminate between the sounds of “pursuit-flying,”  “flying-about-to-land-and-feed” and “just-landed-to-feed” from other flying sound-patterns would most-certainly be money well-spent – even if for no other reason that to fill-in a glaring hole in our knowledge of Anopheles behaviors and for the potential value to other future Anopheles-control efforts.               Presuming, however, that the needed information does already exist, as is most likely, then all that remains to be done would be the design-engineering of an optimum device for cost and reliability that can meet the required parameters as defined by these items 1-3, just listed.                Some examples of flapping-wing mechanisms and other similar or analogous devices are provided in 9. a.– g.; Sound & Other Sensors, Mechanisms, & Related Devices. Evaluation of these methods and devices can be undertaken at numerous facilities (See References 1-5, pages 2-24 for contacts).
=============================================================

 

SOLUTION EIGHT *

 

8)         “Making a Lethally-Poisonous Human

 

Making a Lethally-Poisonous Human

This is one possible (novel) hypothesis for a way to use a health-testing device able to determine a persons’ gametocyte level to identify and then use persons having high gametocyte levels to infect the Anopheles population that preys on a specific village, neighborhood, or city with a transmission-reducing activity that stops malarial transmission by stopping the parasites development in Anopheles.

From Ref. #5. a.;Multiple Malaria Infection Inhibits Spread of Parasite,” ScienceDaily (Mar. 27, 2007); “People who are frequently infected with malaria parasites can develop immunity against the gametocyte, the infectious stage. This immunity inhibits the spread of the parasite. Dutch researcher Mike van der Kolk discovered this during his research into malaria transmission under the inhabitants of Cameroon, Senegal and Indonesia. …The gametocyte is the developmental stage of the parasite that can be transmitted from people to the mosquito. … People, who live in areas where malaria is prevalent, can develop a natural immunity that stops the development of the parasite in the mosquito. This prevents the parasite from spreading further. The presence of this immunity, the so-called transmission-reducing activity, is determined using a laboratory test. Van der Kolk discovered that people who are often infected with malaria could quickly acquire this immunity. He also found that people with higher numbers of gametocytes are more frequently immune.”

The above information raises the question, if a certain number of persons in a village can be presumed to have the above-described immunity, might there be a way to identify those individuals and then use this transmission-reducing activity against the malarial vector (anopheles)? Might it be possible to cause an “epidemic” of this natural immunity – transmission-reducing activity to spread within the human/mosquito populations in a community or region?

By using an electronic health-test device to determine the number of gametocytes and identify which persons have this natural immunity, might a “reverse” epidemic that stops the development of the parasite in the mosquito be instigated by having these persons switch their homes and where they sleep for a few strategically-timed evenings? Might this be accomplished by simply letting these naturally-immune people know at what times it would be most beneficial to switch their sleeping quarters with others, like a game of musical chairs – to “infect” the various mosquito populations throughout a village, neighborhood, or entire city?

 


Some Promising Technologies

 

Malarial & Other Health-Testing Electronic Devices

 

As with the other devices herein-proposed the idea here is to utilize a light/sound-based core device platform that can be used to create one or more of; a colorimeter and/or a spectrophotometer and/or a fluorescence-polarimeter and/or a microscopic-analysis device. References 11. a.– h.;Health & Other Sensor Technologies,” pages 41- 45, show a number of possible light-source-enabled technologies that could potentially be incorporated into a light-based device whose primary purpose is to prevent mosquito-bites within a small enclosed area.

 

One technology shows particular promise: 11. b.; “A Simple and Sensitive “Dip-Stick” Test in Serum Based on Lateral Flow Separation of Aptamer-Linked Nanostructures.” It describes a; “new generation of rapid diagnostic tests that are as easy to handle as a pregnancy test: just dunk them in the sample and see if a colored band appears.” “Our method is universal,” stresses Lu. “Based on this principle, we should be able to develop rapid tests for the emergency diagnosis of a large number of drugs and poisons, as well as physiological molecules.”
Another technology (described in references 11. g. and h.) describe a biosensor licensed from NASA’s Ames Research Center that’s able to detect trace amounts of specific bacteria, viruses and parasites. Under a Reimbursable Space Act Agreement, NASA and Early Warning jointly are developing biosensors to detect the presence of common and rare strains of microorganisms associated with water-borne illnesses and fatalities.

Still another promising technology is 11 . a.; “A diagnostic method for the detection of human malaria infections.”  “Specifically, blood samples are combined with a reagent containing 3-acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide (APAD), a substrate (e.g. a lactate salt or lactic acid), and a buffer. The reagent is designed to detect the presence of a unique glycolytic enzyme produced by the malaria parasite. … The reduced APAD may then be detected by various techniques, including spectral, fluorimetric, electrophoretic, or colorimetric analysis. Detection of the reduced APAD in the foregoing manner provides a positive indication of malaria infection” – Patent number: 5124141.

The following is excerpted from 11. c.; “FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS FOR DETECTION OF EXPOSURE TO BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS BY FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION IMMUNOASSAY OF SALIVA, ORAL OR BODILY FLUIDS” The authors state; “Therefore, its ruggedness in field settings, low cost, long reagent shelf life, ….. Third-world countries are sorely in need of a rapid, inexpensive TB test.”

Fluorescence polarization (hereinafter”FP) is the process in which visible or ultraviolet light is polarized with a filter and shines on part of a molecule, the fluorochrome, that in turn fluoresces, emitting light of longer wavelength whose signal is captured and recorded. … Surprisingly, diagnostic assays utilizing saliva and other oral fluids appear as entries in the National Library of Medicine MEDLARS database with a frequency of only 1 in 30 and 1 in 100, respectively, when compared to entries in which blood serum is reported. …Using an under-utilized and elegant technology, fluorescence polarization, we have developed assays for accurate and rapid detection and diagnosis of antibodies to pathogens producing diseases of military and commercial interest. … Early instruments of such type required relatively high wattage, intense light sources, such as 200-250 watt mercury or xenon gas discharge lamps, … Thus, there is a need for improved fluorescence polarization instruments which are smaller, lighter, and operate using a battery pack or other low power DC power source; avoid the intrinsic background fluorescence and offer a simplified optics block design. …The inventive apparatus satisfies this need by providing a miniaturized, portable apparatus for measuring the fluorescence polarization of a liquid sample.

Also of interest is 11. d.; “Fluorescent Intensity-based Differential Counting of FITC-doped …” This method describes the; “diagnosis and monitoring in the third world and the region with few medical facilities. Then, it is necessary to use… portable diagnosis devices at low cost … .

There is also 11. e; “A study of fecal coliform sources at a …” which describes the ability to take a, “Single scan emission spectra obtained with a scanning fluorometer …. of this approach as a rapid, inexpensive in situ optical method for assessing the …”.

Another technology is; 11. f.; “Leishmania amazonensis Fluorometric Assay” which describe a device suitable for use; “in the Third World. The development of such a spectro-fluorometric assay for the protozoaninexpensive, and has potential for…”.

 

 

What’s needed to get started and to evaluate the Concept?

            Contacting the above-referenced sources for additional information as to the current status of the technologies is the first step, after which the information gathered could be shared with potential collaborative entities such as 12. e.; The Lighting Technology Greenhouse (LTG) program of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Lighting Research Center (LRC). LTG promotes the growth and success of lighting-related businesses by acting as an interface for businesses to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and the commercialization of new lighting products and services that enhance sustainability and provide societal benefit. At the core of LTG are the Lighting Research Center and The Lighting Cultivator, a new, not-for-profit corporation provides the connection between the LRC and the private sector to advance commercialization of new lighting concepts.

More potential collaborative entities are provided in reference 12.; “ORGANIZATIONS & COMPANIES OF POSSIBLE INTEREST,” pages 45-48. Information about an “Eco-Patent Commons” (12. a.) is described where; “Leading members of the corporate community have come together in a first-of-its-kind effort to help the environment, unleashing dozens of innovative, environmentally responsible patents to the public domain.” An IP Exchange is described (12.b.) that gives the seven largest university research intellectual-property exchanges. Also provided are information about the organization, “Horizon International,” (12.c.) and the “Biomimicry Guild,” (12.d.).

Still more potential collaborative sources might be found in “Light-related Technologies and Products” (8.a-i.), pages 30-35.

 
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SOLUTION NINE * – ADD-ONS TO CORE DEVICE

 

(9)        “Extra Stuff,”  Additional Ways to Increase User-Appeal & Utility – *These are additional (add-on) device features that on their own fail to meet one or more contest criteria but that nonetheless combats malaria in other ways and/or can provide other significant safety and convenience benefits to the users of a device.

 

 

The Ideal Device:

Would store immeasurably valuable epidemiologically-related data on disease-vectors for local and regional health-services

 

A Great Add-on!

A potentially life and home-saving Smoke-Detector Alarm could inexpensively be added.

 

For Additional Future Consideration:

Disease-Detection using simple colorimeter, fluorometer-like, or spectrophotometer-like, functionality – See Ref. 8. on Health & Other Sensor Technologies.

 

To Increase User-Appeal and Value-Perception as a Personalized Luxury:

A few Hallmark-Card-like Musical Melodies (using the devices core sound-platform technology); Also, provide a device that comes in a variety of colors & designs.

 

Other Inexpensive but Highly Useful Add-ons:

Clock/Alarm;

Hyper-Volume Personal-Protection Alarm;

Hi-Volume Call-for-Help / Emergency / Warning / Communicate-Location;

Night-time Capacitance-Fire-Spark-tool (re-chargeable matches);

Hearing Amplification for Elderly;

Low-Power Single-chip Radio;

Small-attached Magnifier as Elderly Eyesight Aid & Daytime Spark-tool;

Small Portable Light;

Low-power Nightlight;

Needle Directional Compass;

Blow-Whistle.

 

Useful Higher-cost Add-ons:

UHF Radio

Short-distance Walkie-talkie


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ENDNOTES & ADDENDA

 

I’m using Netlogo to model another project I’m working on now, and I’d wanted to create a software simulation model pertaining to this project, but alas…. However, I did find the following, by someone else, to provide a little taste of an autonomous-agent simulation model…

From Section 6. g. – Netlogo JAVA Browser Bite Model: Humans & Mosquitoes in a Room: (see reference pg. 28). This will run in your browser over the net (Java), so there’s No software download required… created with NetLogo, Home Page> zacbrown.org/netlogo-malaria/malaria.nlogo, For Copy/Paste or Click-to-Link> http://zacbrown.org/netlogo-malaria

A number of computer models in particular do a far better job at making the case – see Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Populations in Biological Systems:  2007 Tucson, Arizona – conference proceedings, “Section 6” of references.  For example; 6. f.  “A mathematical model for the dynamics of malaria in mosquitoes feeding on a heterogeneous host population,” by Nakul Chitnis.

 

Dynamic & Autocatalytic versus Static Methods; “Nuance” – Now, as to why I’ve made reference to all those high-caliber words, like; Autonomous-Agent Computer Models, Non-Linear Dynamics, Complexity, Chaos, and Game Theory. There’s a “larger-picture” human-dynamic that lends credence to the use of these words when discussing the herein-discussed concepts for an electrically-powered device to combat malaria. I’m not about to claim expertise in malarial epidemiology, nor in all of the above fields, nor do I want to get sidetracked – so I’ve included a number of references where credibly authorities make far more effective arguments than I’ve just managed – the point being that there are viable alternatives to the conventional dogma’s. For example; historically it’s been a given that effective control requires lethality (>90%) for adult mosquitoes before they can reach the age of infectivity, period. Current strategic efforts are therefore, inarguably by this definition, static-response inasmuch as they have a fixated objective – that being to maximize mosquito mortality before the mosquito can become infective.

 

Nonetheless, there are reasons to believe that mosquito-control and malaria-prevention efforts that involve an informed individual and a family & community dynamic-response strategy (that these concepts/devices seek to provide in various ways) may also prove efficacious inasmuch as the complex mosquito-parasite-human biology is itself a dynamical process. If this premise holds true, then the addition of multiple new dynamic-response strategies to the conventional but also proven-effective static-response strategy can deliver an additional measure of success that’s unreachable with a static-response strategy alone. For example, reference 5.b., pg. 20; “The deleterious effects of sub-lethal pathogens on the capacity of insects to function as vectors of disease has been virtually ignored although sub-lethal effects are the most common outcome of infection. Exploiting sub-lethal effects of pathogens could present new opportunities…” Also perhaps worth a quick look is; (Fig. 4. pg. 21, see attached).

A stated goal of the device sought is to achieve  >90% bite prevention, NOT >90% vector mortality… but the same broad principle holds… and I just wanted to suggest that some of the concepts I’m about to propose may be worth considering even if they fall a little short by the laboratory-measurement criteria because they can (potentially) help to see the 100% elimination of mosquito vectors within peoples homes (huts) over time as a consequence of the complex bio-socio-eco-dynamics involved.

 

As to the (peripherally-related) issue of institutions and governments tending to focus unduly on prevention methods promising >90% mortality; included are a number of “Biological Studies & Computer Model” references that answer some interesting questions such as:

 

  • Is Lethality before Infectivity Truly an Absolute Necessity?
  • Does Lethality before Infectivity Encourage the Evolution of Immunity enough to be a Serious Concern?
  • Are there any Alternative Strategies that could be equally, or More Effective?


============================================================== SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF ALL SOLUTIONS

 

It’s hoped that at least a few of these concepts will be shown to have true potential and that my attempts at description have done them the justice they deserve. I’m more comfortable tinkering in a lab than writing.

Point #1 – The proposed device(s) all make active and passive use of light and sound, many in some fairly novel ways. This is important because they aren’t “fancy” technologies. This means lower cost to develop, and then to manufacture. This means the devices won’t require as much skill to repair, so more types of repairs can be done locally. Because light and sound technologies have so many additional applications and uses, there is potential for downstream add-on or changes to the following generations of devices, and increases the chance that such improvements might be deployed as add-ons to devices already in the field.  And lastly, sound and light apply to many non-mosquito related personal and household lifestyle conveniences (illumination, music, radio).

 

Point #2 – At least peripherally, each proposal touches on the subjects of Autonomous-Agent Computer Models, Non-Linear Dynamics, Complexity, Chaos, and Game Theory in their relevance to the control of malarial vectors.

 

What really constitutes an “effective” device? For example, the afore-mentioned perimeter-sentry method (4. b.) will prevent >90% of bites in many situations, and (4. a.) could prevent >90% of bites and also result in mosquito mortality equally as high if used to the full extent of its capabilities – whereas some other of the these methods may not reduce bites by >90%, especially depending on what qualifies as an experimental setting. However, even though (4.a) & (4.b.) meet the criteria, this misses the REAL POINT of these, and the other methods… they are interactive – they all engage and educate and by doing so are able to address the whole dynamic, the larger picture, such as the ecology between human and insect vector, and, in particular, include and address the peculiarities of human social psychology and human habitats. The people using these devices have a lifestyle that these various device methods would fit comfortably into; once so incorporated, use of these methods could encourage positive changes in lifestyle and environment to occur that are beyond measurement in a laboratory.

 


Dynamic, Empowering, Interactive and Educational versus Static Solutions

 

If there’s a “Static-Solution” stand-alone device that only requires that it be set it in the center of a room and turned-on, with hands-off functionality right out-of-the-box to prevent >90% of all bites – GREAT! Then this would be the #1 device for consideration. Even so, presuming such a “#1 Miracle” option exists (I hope it does), one or more of the ideas I’m proposing may STILL be worth considering for the following reasons.

 

A key factor in addressing and solving the problem will always include the human-factors. Over the long haul the empowering, dynamic, educational, and “interactive” aspects to the concepts I’m proposing could end up having a significant effect in helping to defeat malaria in the undeveloped world. All of the methods in these six-plus proposals will prevent bites, but their real potential may be in the heightened awareness and pro-active empowerment they can deliver to the end-users.

 

The BIG Point: All six-plus of the herein proposed inventions are interactive and act to empower as well as educate the individual. It’s not just about what we can do to help “them,” it’s also about what they can do to help themselves. Motivation is often undermined by a sense of powerlessness. Each of the methods herein proposed operates by actively putting the local people back into the loop – it doesn’t just sit there and “passively” solve all of their problems by killing and/or repelling and/or preventing bites. Rather, these devices act to increase awareness and empower the users of the devices.

 

New patterns of thought and behaviors would be encouraged; as examples – A user of the proposed device(s) might say to him or herself; “Maybe there IS a way to block off the door-way just a little better than before; And perhaps I COULD take a little extra time to seal the roof a bit better…” etc. This is the strength of these devices, and may not be measurable in a lab as a percentage of bites prevented because innumerable bites will be prevented as a result of the complex human dynamic that these device methods address and that are their real strength.


Synopsis of Device Qualifications

  1. Each of these SIX-plus devices can have an appreciable and measurable impact on the interior semi-enclosed area four meters by four meters of people’s homes, but even more importantly – they will have an appreciable and measurable impact on the people themselves. This is because these six devices each have the potential (separately or all combined into a single device) to encourage behaviors that will be CRITICAL to the successful eradication of malaria in developing nations around the world.
  2. Each of these devices would be effective for > 10 hours before their next charge.
  3. By affecting near-term and local-area bite frequency, these six-plus devices will prevent enough bites to be worth their use; By affecting long-term and broad-area human behaviors due to the interactive and engaging nature of these six devices, it’s hoped that a dramatic reduction in the frequency of bites will be seen of > 90% compared to the not deploying these six devices in the field.
  4. None of these six-plus devices would be harmful to humans.
  5. The proposed materials (For invention # 2) will be abundant in the developing world and renewable (e.g. it’s a naturally occurring chemical and renewable).
  6. Durability: These six-plus devices, because of their use of common and simple technologies, should be able to withstand rough handling and operate in all environmental conditions (up to 50 °C and 90% relative humidity) for > 5 years.
  7. Cost of any of these six-plus devices, whether built separately or with combined functions in a single multi-capability device should still not exceed $15.00 USD which includes: (a) One watt of solar panel: $3.00, (b) Three AA rechargeable batteries: $1.00, (c) Plastic housing: $1.00, (d) The core apparatus or invention/component is limited to $10.00 USD.
  8. About sixty pages of additional information are provided under separate cover as “References & Addenda for Innocentive Malaria Proposal.” The “Table of Contents” is provided (following). These 59 pages will prove useful for better determining: (a) Details of the six electrical concepts/devices proposed, (b) Identifying and specifying likely materials/parts for future use, (c) Help to estimate the expected durability and costs (technical requirement #4 and 5) of the six-plus devices proposed.

Note: The references were sent as a separate file, a Table of Contents for it follows;

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS for REFERENCES (SEE FOLLOWING)

 

Section                                                 General Topics                                                          Pages

 

  1. a. – e. Visual Activation of Anopheles Predator-Avoidance Response               2

 

  1. a. – c. Adult Mosquito Visual & Chemical/Olfactory Larval Memories as         9 Possible New Category of Repellant
  2. a. – h. Various Aquatic & Other Predators of Anopheles                                   11
  3. a. – b. Making Humans Less Appealing to Anopheles by Retinal Stimulation  12 with Blue Light

 

  1. a. – f. Biological Studies Answer: Is Lethality (>90%) Before Age of              13 Infectivity Absolutely Necessary? What are the Downsides?        Alternatives? (Autonomous-Agent Computer Models, Non-Linear Dynamics, Complexity, Chaos & Game Theory)
  2. a. – h. Computer Models Answer: Is Lethality (>90%) Before Age of               25     Infectivity Absolutely Necessary? Any Downsides? Alternatives?
  3. a. – b. Cursory Patent Search of Related Areas                                                   29
  4. a. – i. Light-Related Technologies & Products                                                   30

 

  1. a. – g. Sound & Other Sensors, Mechanisms, & Related Devices                       36

 

  1. a. – b. Mosquito Net Info & Contacts        40

 

  1. a. – h. Health & Other Sensor Technologies        41

 

  1. a. – f. Organizations & Companies of Possible Interest                    45

 

  1. Anopheles Behavior, Biology & Epidemiology                    49

 

  1. General Info & Notes from Web & Misc. Sources                    57

 

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

Developing World Water Container Deployable Water Quality & Mosquito/Malaria Surveillance & Education Devices & Methods

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Section                                                  General Topics                                         Pages

 

  1. a. – e. Visual Activation of Anopheles Predator-Avoidance Response               2

 

  1. a. – c. Adult Mosquito Visual & Chemical/Olfactory Larval Memories as            9 Possible New Category of Repellant
  2. a. – h. Various Aquatic & Other Predators of Anopheles                              11
  3. a. – b. Making Humans Less Appealing to Anopheles by Retinal Stimulation   12 with Blue Light

 

  1. a. – f. Biological Studies Answer: Is Lethality (>90%) Before Age of               13 Infectivity Absolutely Necessary? What are the Downsides?        Alternatives? (Autonomous-Agent Computer Models, Non-Linear Dynamics, Complexity, Chaos & Game Theory)
  2. a. – h. Computer Models Answer: Is Lethality (>90%) Before Age of           25     Infectivity Absolutely Necessary? Any Downsides? Alternatives?
  3. a. – b. Cursory Patent Search of Related Areas                                           29
  4. a. – i. Light-Related Technologies & Products                                                   30

 

  1. a. – g. Sound & Other Sensors, Mechanisms, & Related Devices                       36

 

  1. a. – b. Mosquito Net Info & Contacts        40

 

  1. a. – h. Health & Other Sensor Technologies        41

 

  1. a. – f. Organizations & Companies of Possible Interest                    45

 

  1. Anopheles Behavior, Biology & Epidemiology        49

 

  1. General Info & Notes from Web & Misc. Sources                  58

 

 

(6. g.)   Netlogo Sim-Model w/JAVA Browser: Humans & Mosquitoes in a Room      (28)

Click-on Link > http://zacbrown.org/netlogo-malaria/

 


(1)      VISUAL ACTIVATION OF ANOPHELES PREDATOR-

AVOIDANCE RESPONSE

 

 

(1. a.) “Anopheles Mosquitoes as Prey: A Predator from East Africa that Chooses Malaria Vectors as Preferred Prey,” Ximena J. Nelson, Robert R. Jackson, (2006). PLoS ONE 1(1): e132. oi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000132,

Current address: Centre for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

E-mail: ximena@galliform.bhs.mq.edu.au

Article> http://www.solutions-site.org/artman/publish/article_309.shtml

Background – Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider (Salticidae) that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by selecting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey.

Methodology/Principal Findings. – By testing with motionless lures made from mounting dead insects in lifelike posture on cork discs, we show that E. culicivora selects Anopheles mosquitoes in preference to other mosquitoes and that this predator can identify Anopheles by static appearance alone. …Tests using active (grooming) virtual mosquitoes rendered in 3-D animation show that Anopheles’ characteristic resting posture is an important prey-choice cue for E. culicivora. …

Conclusions/Significance. – This is the first experimental study to show that a predator of any type actively chooses Anopheles as preferred prey, suggesting that specialized predators having a role in the biological control of disease vectors is a realistic possibility.

Introduction – That an East African predator might single out malaria vectors as preferred prey is of considerable interest. … Here we consider Evarcha culicivora, an East African jumping spider [Salticidae]. This species is known only from the vicinity of Lake Victoria in East Africa [8], a region where, even by African standards, the impact of malaria is especially severe [2], [9], [10]. …E. culicivora single out Anopheles as their preferred prey, …… When quiescent, E. culicivora hides in the grass or in other vegetation close to the ground, but feeding individuals venture into more exposed locations, including the inside walls of mosquito-infested houses [8]…..In another earlier study [20], the small juveniles of E. culicivora were shown to adopt an Anopheles-specific prey-capture tactic that enables it to exploit Anopheles’ distinctive resting posture with its abdomen angled up from the substrate [21] (i.e., the spider moves behind and under the mosquito’s abdomen and then attacks from below).

Results/Discussion  – First, using mount tests, we confirmed that sated spiders expressed the previously shown basic preference for blood-carrying mosquitoes (Fig. 2; BA, SA), but we also found that E. culicivora prefers Anopheles to another mosquito genus sympatric with it, Culex, with spider size and prior-feeding condition being important variables influencing this surprisingly specific preference.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1. Apparatus for virtual-prey testing. Spider (not to scale) at top of inclined metal ramp, oriented toward one of two side-by-side virtual mosquitoes. … Inset: virtual mosquitoes in Anopheles resting posture (left) and in non-Anopheles resting posture (right).

As mounts were motionless and virtual prey all moved identically, there were no potential movement cues by which spiders could discriminate between prey in mount tests or virtual-prey tests. The only variable in virtual-prey tests was prey posture. Yet even the smallest juveniles consistently chose Anopheles, indicating that the visual system of even the smallest juveniles (body length, 1.5 mm) have a remarkable capacity for identifying the preferred prey. …Jumping spiders have UV-sensitive receptors and UV-based signals may be used during salticid intraspecific interactions.

This is the first demonstration of a spider, or any predator, singling out Anopheles mosquitoes as preferred prey.

Materials and Methods – The field site and laboratory were at ICIPE’s Thomas Odhiambo Campus (Mbita Point, Kenya). Each of the prey types that we used was sympatric with E. culicivora at Mbita Point. …In virtual-prey tests, spiders made a ‘virtual-prey choice’ by stalking one of two animated 3D drawings of mosquitoes and the only variable by which the two prey differed was posture (Anopheles: abdomen tilted up; Culex: abdomen horizontal). … For drawing 3D virtual mosquitoes, images were first captured. The two virtual mosquitoes differed only in their posture, one in Anopheles’ typical resting posture (body tilted 45°) and the other in Culex’s typical resting posture (body held parallel to the substrate [21]). …The body length of virtual mosquitoes was 3.5 mm on the screen … When displayed, the two virtual mosquitoes (Anopheles: abdomen tilted up; Culex: abdomen horizontal). were side by side (10 mm apart) and they moved simultaneously in a way that simulated Anopheles’ natural grooming behavior (groomed for 1 s;1-s interval between successive grooming bouts).

The author also suggests that readers might also like to read a case study by Professor Andrew Spielman, Harvard School of Public Health, Prospects for suppressing dengue transmission by means of biological agents, a case study for the  Horizon Solutions Site about how “biological agents can be used to suppress outbreaks of mosquito-borne infection in place of environmentally intrusive insecticides.”

 

(1. b.) “Pouncing spider, flying mosquito: blood acquisition increases predation risk in mosquitoes,” Behavioral Ecology Vol. 14 No. 5: 736-740; Bernard D. Roitberg, Edward B. Mondor and Jabus G. A. Tyerman; Behavioral Ecology Research Group, Centre for Environmental Biology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada; E. B. Mondor is now at the Division of Ecology, Department of Biological Sciences, 2500 University Drive NW, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada.; Link>  International Society for Behavioral Ecology

Address correspondence to B. D. Roitberg. E-mail: roitberg@sfu.ca  

ABSTRACT – … We used two laboratory-based experiments … In the first, we allowed mature female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to feed from 0 to 4 min and then attacked those females with an artificial predator. … we exposed both blood-engorged and unfed A.gambiae females to single zebra spiders (Salticus scenicus) in small plexiglass cages. …We found that engorged mosquitoes were three times less likely to escape searching spiders compared to unfed conspecifics.

INTRODUCTION – During a single feeding bout, lasting 4 to 5 min, a female anopheline mosquito can increase mass by more than 200% … …test the notion of increased predation risk to blood-fed mosquitoes both at the host and away from the host (i.e., from humans and jumping spiders, respectively). …this is the first manipulative experiment to directly test this idea.

METHODS – Anopheles gambiae Ifakarazebra spider (Salticus scenisus) as our generalist predator… collected from walls near vegetation on the Simon Fraser University (SFU) campus in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

RESULTS – Unfed mosquitoes were more likely to escape from jumping spiders as the spider approached than were fed mosquitoes. … Furthermore, fed mosquitoes were not captured faster compared to unfed mosquitoes (mean ± SE; fed vs. unfed; 379 ± 77 vs. 358 ± 89 s; t31 = 0.18, p =.86). … Unfed female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes escape more often from foraging jumping spiders versus blood engorged females (F3,72 = 3.34, p =.024)…

DISCUSSION – Our experiments provide strong experimental evidence that mosquitoes incur substantial risk due to increased mass from blood feeding. The risk of death associated with blood feeding in mosquitoes is best evaluated in terms of the trade-off between fecundity and survivorship … Fecundity increases as a function of blood meal size (Briegel, 1990) but so, too, should mortality, both at the host and after host feeding.

Acknowledgemets – The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada provided funding for this project.
(1. c.)   “A spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing female mosquitoes as prey,” EVOLUTION, Robert R. Jackson *, , , Ximena J. Nelson *, , and Godfrey O. Sune  *School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand; International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya; and Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia; Communicated by Hans R. Herren, Nairobi, Kenya, August 30, 2005 (received for review January 24, 2005) Published online on October 10, 2005, 10.1073/pnas.0507398102 PNAS | October 18, 2005 | vol. 102 | no. 42 | 15155-15160; © 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rjackson@mbita.mimcom.net.

Abstract – Spiders do not feed directly on vertebrate blood, but a small East African jumping spider (Salticidae), Evarcha culicivora, feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing as preferred prey female mosquitoes that have had recent blood meals. Experiments show that this spider can identify its preferred prey by sight alone … When presented with two types of size-matched motionless lures, E. culicivora consistently chose blood-fed female mosquitoes in preference to nonmosquito prey, male mosquitoes, and sugar-fed female mosquitoes…No spiders are known to feed directly on vertebrate blood, but Evarcha culicivora, a jumping spider (Salticidae) from East Africa, preys frequently on blood-carrying mosquitoes in the field (1). Here we investigate a hypothesis suggested by field data and feeding observations: that E. culicivora has innate prey-choice behavior that enables it to feed on blood indirectly. Having a predator that makes vision-based decisions is convenient for experimental testing of prey-choice hypotheses, but most spiders have only poorly developed eyesightSalticids are a distinctive exception, because they have unique complex eyes that support spatial resolution (0.04°) without parallel in other animals of comparable size… For example, the highest acuity known for insects (14) is 0.4°, and the acuity of the human eye (0.007°) is only about five times better than that of a salticid. … Although there are well known examples of vision-based prey choice by salticids… the present study of E. culicivora documents strikingly more refined preferencesalticid genus Evarcha is widespread in the Holarctic, Afrotropical, and Oriental Regions and includes >50 described species … E. culicivora is known only from the vicinity of Lake Victoria in Kenya and Uganda, where its typical habitat is tree trunks and the walls of buildings. …feeding individuals venture into more exposed locations, including the inside walls of mosquito-infested houses. … E. culicivora chooses specifically female mosquitoes that have recently fed on blood when the alternatives are lake flies, other arthropod species that do not carry blood, male mosquitoes, which never feed on blood, and female mosquitoes that have been feeding on sugar alone instead of blood.

Materials and Methods – General. – The field site and laboratory were at the Thomas Odhiambo Campus (Mbita Point, western Kenya) of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology. …A. gambiae …were collected at Mbita Point. The other mosquito species were collected as larvae at Mbita Point … Other prey … were collected from the field as needed…Vision-Based Prey Choice. – Each lure was made by immobilizing an arthropod …For preservation, the lure was… sprayed with a transparent plastic adhesive…

 

 

 

Fig. 1. – Apparatus used for testing vision-based prey choice (not drawn to scale). Glass arena … Lures were mounted on cork discs … one on each side of each vial. The type of lure at A was different from the type at B. Testing introduced the test spider through CH. Testing ended when the test spider entered a vial and remained there for >30s.

 

Results  – Vision-Based Prey ChoiceWhen Body Lengths of the Two Prey Types Match. Pooling all data from these tests, 1,423 (83%) of the spiders chose the blood-fed mosquito, whereas only 297 (17%) of the spiders chose the alternative prey E. culicivora chose blood-fed female mosquitoes significantly more often than they chose conspecific male mosquitoes. …Pooling all data from these tests, 627 (78%) of the spiders chose the blood-fed female mosquito, whereas only 173 (22%) of the spiders chose the male mosquito… When the alternative was a conspecific female mosquito that had been feeding on sugar only, E. culicivora chose blood-fed female mosquitoes significantly more often than they chose the sugar-fed female mosquitoes…Pooling all data from these tests, 477 (79%) of the spiders chose the blood-fed female mosquito, whereas only 127 (21%) chose the sugar-fed female mosquito.

Discussion – … our data showed that … E. culicivora feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood. By sight, E. culicivora consistently chose lures made from blood-carrying female mosquitoes instead of lures made from prey that were not carrying blood (sugar-fed female mosquitoes, male mosquitoes, and a variety of arthropod species that do not feed on blood). …Our experiments imply that Evarcha culicivora’s prey-choice behavior is driven by an innate preference for blood-fed female mosquitoes and also show that E. culicivora has a remarkable ability to make the same highly specific prey identifications by sight aloneBy sight alone, E. culicivora also made prey-size choices. … It is known that, after feeding on blood, females of A. gambiae become more vulnerable to attack by generalist salticids (32), presumably because the mosquito becomes sluggish when engorged. This appears to be the first predator that has been shown experimentally

  • to select prey on the basis of what the prey has recently eaten,
  • to single out mosquitoes as preferred prey, and
  • to feed, indirectly, on vertebrate blood.

This research was funded in part by grants from the Marsden Fund of the New Zealand Royal Society and by the National Geographic Society.

 

Table 1. – Arthropods used in laboratory experiments

Order Family Species Body lengths of individuals used, mm
Diptera Culicidae Aedes aegypti 5.0
    Anopheles gambiae 4.5 and 5.5
    Anopheles funestus 3.5
    Culex quinquefasciatus 4.5
  Chaoboridae Chaoborus sp. 4.5
  Chiromonidae Ablabesmyia nilotica 4.5
    Chironomus imicola 4.5
    Clinotanypus claripennis 6.0
    Conochironomus acutistilus 6.0
    Nilodorum brevibucca 4.5
  Tephritidae Ceratitis capitata 4.5
Lepidoptera Pyralidae Chilo partellus 5.0
Homoptera Aphididae Brevicoryne brassicae 2.0
Araneae Oecobiidae Oecobius amboseli 2.0
  Tetragnathidae Nephilengys sp. 4.5

 

 

(1. d.)          IMAGE OF MOSQUITO EYE: The mosquito’s head is mostly eye. This type of vision is very efficient at noticing very slight motions such as another insect trying to sneak up on it. LINK> http://www.mos.org/sln/sem/mhead.html

 
Magnification: X 200
(1. e.) Comparative study on the relationship between photoperiodic host-seeking behavioral patterns and the eye parameters of mosquitoes.

Abstract Link: Comparative study on the relationship between phot…[J Inse..

Article: 1: J Insect Physiol. 2006 Jan;52(1):67-75. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Department of Vector Ecology & Environment, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. vergiss@net.nagasaki-u.ac.jp, Kawada H, Tatsuta H, Arikawa K, Takagi M. PMID: 16253268 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] – Relationships between the ommatidial structure and photoperiodic behavior of several mosquito species were investigated. Host-seeking behavioral patterns of mosquitoes were classified into four main groups based on previously compiled reports on field or laboratory biting activity. These groups were pattern I and I’ (nocturnal), pattern II (crepuscular and nocturnal), pattern III (crepuscular and diurnal), and pattern IV (diurnal). Eye parameters (product of facet diameter and interommatidial angle) of mosquitoes that belong to the pattern I and I’ group were higher (2.7-4.2) than those of mosquitoes that belong to the pattern IV group (0.8-2.3). Eye parameters of the mosquitoes categorized in the pattern II and III groups were intermediate (2.3-2.6). Large variations in the eye parameters were observed even within the same genus depending on their photoperiodic behavior. Therefore, the ommatidial structure of mosquitoes appears to be determined, not taxonomically, but evolutionarily by the photoenvironment in which the mosquitoes are most active.

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2.)     ADULT MOSQUITO VISUAL & CHEMICAL/OLFACTORY LARVAL

MEMORIES AS POSSIBLE NEW CATEGORY OF REPELLANT

 

 

(2. a.) Can Moths Or Butterflies Remember What They Learned As Caterpillars?

ScienceDaily (Mar. 8, 2008) Journal reference: Blackiston DJ, Silva Casey E, Weiss MR (2008) Retention of Memory through Metamorphosis: PLoS One 3(3): e1736. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001736, Link> http://www.plosone.org/doi/pone.0001736

…it would seem unlikely that learned associations or memories formed at the larval or caterpillar stage could be accessible to the adult moth or butterfly. However, scientists at Georgetown University recently discovered that a moth can indeed remember what it learned as a caterpillar…. tobacco hornworm caterpillars could be trained to avoid particular odors delivered in association with a mild shock. When adult moths emerged from the pupae of trained caterpillars, they also avoided the odors, showing that they retained their larval memory. The Georgetown University study is the first to demonstrate conclusively that associative memory can survive metamorphosis …”The intriguing idea that a caterpillar’s experiences can persist in the adult butterfly or moth captures the imagination, as it challenges a broadly-held view of metamorphosis — that the larva essentially turns to soup and its components are entirely rebuilt as a butterfly,” says senior author Martha Weiss, an associate professor of Biology at Georgetown University. “Scientists have been interested in whether memory can survive metamorphosis for over a hundred years,” says first author Doug Blackiston… the results have both ecological and evolutionary implications… Weiss’ lab is particularly interested in solitary insects, such as butterflies, praying mantids, and mud-dauber wasps. … Blackiston, now conducting postdoctoral work at the Forsyth Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology and the Department of Developmental Biology at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine

 

(2. b.) Antipredator Responses and the Perception of Danger by Mosquito Larvae, Andrew Sih, Ecology, Vol 67, No 2 (Apr 1986) pp 434. Ecological Society of America, Link> JSTOR: Ecology: Vol. 67, No. 2 (Apr., 1986), pp. 434-441
The author has conducted a series of laboratory experiments to contrast the responses of two species of mosquito larvae to a common predator, the freshwater bug Notonecta undulata . One prey species, Culex pipiens, commonly co-occurs with Notonecta , whereas the other, Aedes aegypti , shares no evolutionary history with this predator. He tested the evolution-based prediction that Culex should be killed at a lower rate due to stronger and more precise antipredator responses. He then studied the types of cues used by these prey to guage predation risk by examining prey responses to simple disturbances and to potential chemical cues associated with predation. The results were that both mosquito species responded to Notonecta by moving less and by shifting their microhabitat use; Culex was indeed killed at a lower rate; Culex showed far stronger responses to notonectids; the response of Culex was correlated with actual predation risk even after encounter rate with predators was accounted for; and Culex but not Aedes , responded to water in which conspecifics had been preyed upon by Notonecta .

(2. c.)   Anti-Predator Behavioral Responses of Mosquito Pupae to Aerial Predation Risk, Iñaki Rodríguez-Prieto1, Esteban Fernández-Juricic (2) and José Martín (1), Journal of Insect Behavior, Springer Netherlands, 0892-7553 (Print) 1572-8889 (Online), Volume 19, Number 3 / May, 2006  DOI 10.1007/s10905-006-9033-4, Pages 373-381 (1) Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain (2) Department of Biological Sciences, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd. (Mailstop 3702), Long Beach, CA 90840, USA; Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Email: efernand@csulb.edu

Aquatic insects have two potential sources of predation risk: aquatic predators and aerial predators. …Our goal was to assess anti-predator responses of Culex pipiens to aerial predation. …By simulating predator attacks, we assessed (a) the distance fled in relation to depth and group size, (b) the distribution of individuals at different depths, and (c) the duration of surfacing events to obtain air in scenarios with varying predation risk. Pupae located closer to the surface fled deeper into the water, and the number of conspecifics decreased the distance fled. …. Culex pipiens shows a trade-off between avoiding aerial predation and maintaining oxygen acquisition, which may be regulated by the need to conserve energy reserves.

 


(3.)     VARIOUS AQUATIC & OTHER PREDATORS OF ANOPHELES

 

(3. a.) Study on the predatory potential of notonectid bug, (ANISOPS SARDAE) against mosquito larvae in north Delhi. R C Dhiman, R K Singh, P K Mittal J Commun Dis.,Sep 2004 (Vol. 36, Issue 3, Pages 214-6) Link> MEDLINE | Related Records

(3. b.) Chemical detection of the predator NOTONECTA IRRORATA by ovipositing Culex mosquitoes. Leon Blaustein, Jonathan Blaustein, Jonathan Chase J Vector Ecol
Dec 2005 (Vol. 30, Issue 2, Pages 299-301). Link > MEDLINE | Related Records

(3. c.)   Coexistence of a Mosquito and a DYTISCID BEETLE Predator in…, Experiments showed that mosquito populations in habitats that lacked the predator later became extinct when the predator was introduced. links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-4909(19820820)27%3A3%3C273%3ACOAMAA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W; Link: JSTOR: Coexistence of a Mosquito and a Dytiscid Beetle Predator in …

(3. d.) Neglected Predators: WATER MITES (Ascari:Parasitengona…), Egg predation by water mites Three families of water mites contain genera ….. and re- production of the mosquito Anopheles crucians (Diptera:Culididae). Link > JSTOR: Neglected Predators: Water Mites (Acari:Parasitengona …

 (3, e.)            A laboratory study of predation by DAMSELFLY NYMPHS, Enallagma civile, upon mosquito larvae, Culex tarsalis. T Miura, R M Takahashi, J Am Mosq Control Assoc., Jun 1988 (Vol. 4, Issue 2, Pages 129-31). Link>  MEDLINE | Related Records

(3. f.) Laboratory studies on the predatory potential of DRAGON-FLY NYMPHS on mosquito larvae. R K Singh, R C Dhiman, S P Singh J Commun Dis., Jun 2003 (Vol. 35, Issue 2, Pages 96-101) Link> MEDLINE | Related Records

(3. g.)   The GECKO: an environmentally friendly biological agent for mosquito control., Canyon DV, Hii JLK, 1997. Med Vet Entomol 11: 319-323. [Medline]

 

(3. h.) Field confirmation of laboratory observations on the differential antimosquito behaviour of HERONS,  Edman JD, Day JF, Walker ED, 1984.. Condor 86: 91-92.

 

 

 


(4)        MAKING HUMANS LESS APPEALING TO ANOPHELES BY RETINAL

STIMULATION WITH BLUE LIGHT

 

(4. a.) Alteration of Human Circadian Rhythms and Melatonin with Light, Article: New Math: Two Plus Two Equals Three, Mariana Figueiro, Rensselair Lighting Research Center, Clickable Link to Article> http://news.rpi.edu/update.do?artcenterkey=1320&setappvar=page(1), Contact: Mary Cimo, Phone: (518) 687-7166, E-mail: Click to follow Link>  cimom@rpi.edu, Mariana Figueiro, Ph.D. Program Director.,Assistant Professor, 518-687-7142 Click to follow Link> figuem@rpi.edu

Several scientific studies have determined that light on the eye’s retina is the primary synchronizer of human circadian rhythms, the biological cycles that repeat approximately every 24 hours. …Nocturnal melatonin, a hormone, is used as a marker for the circadian clock, with high levels at night when a person is in a dark environment and low levels during the day with or without light. Researchers at Rensselaer’s Lighting Research Center (LRC… have demonstrated that more light will sometimes be less effective at stimulating the circadian system, as measured by nocturnal melatonin suppression by light. The Power of Blue – Blue sky is a mixture of wavelengths dominated by short wavelength light… According to Mark Rea, Ph.D., LRC director, the circadian system is essentially a blue sky detector. …Mariana Figueiro, Ph.D., LRC program director. An LRC research team led by Figueiro has been working to demonstrate the effectiveness of blue light and white light on the circadian system.  … more light was less effective on the circadian system, supporting the hypothesis that spectral opponency is a fundamental characteristic of how the human retina converts light into neural signals in the human circadian system… researchers developed a model to serve as the foundation for a new quantification system of light for the circadian system. “We can now calculate ‘circadian efficacy’ of different light sources,” says Figueiro. “This has profound implications for exploring how lighting can affect human health.” Blue-light Treatment – The impact of blue light on the circadian system was demonstrated in an earlier study led by Figueiro …were exposed to tabletop LED luminaires for two hours every day from 4:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. …blue LEDs for a two-week period …the circadian system responds best to blue light… essentially non-responsive to long-wavelength radiation (red light), …study showed statistically significant increases in sleep after blue-light treatment. “Circadian Efficacy” The team’s research detailing this phenomenon, known as spectral opponency, is currently available on PubMed in the October 2005 edition of Neuroendocrinology Letters, released in January 2006. For more details on the sleep study, visit (Clickable Link)> http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/news/enews/Apr05/general245.html

About the Lighting Research Center – The Lighting Research Center (LRC) is part of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and is the leading university-based research center devoted to lighting. About Rensselaer – The Institute is well known for its success in the transfer of technology from the laboratory to the marketplace so that new discoveries and inventions benefit human life, protect the environment, and strengthen economic development.

(4. b.)  Circadiana Website by coturnix: Copy/Paste> http://circadiana.blogspot.com/2006/03/some-hypotheses-about-possible.html

…In some species of Plasmodium (like P.falciparum), the bursting of red blood cells occurs every night. In some species of Plasmodium, the resulting fever occurs every two nights and in some every four nights (rarely three),…Obviously, from the perspective of a Plasmodium, timing is crucial. First, it is important to errupt in synchrony. Yet, hidden inside red blood cells, plasmodia cannot communicate with each other. Second, it is important to time the eruption in such a way as to maximize the probabilty that some of the gametocytes will be picked up by mosquitoes. Thus, it is important for the eruption to occur at the time of day when mosquitoes are most actively foraging for blood. How do the Plasmodia solve the problem of timing? This is where circadian biology comes in [3,4,5]. Plasmodia residing inside red blood cells use the time-clues generated by the host. More specifically, they key onto the nightly release of melatonin by the pineal gland. Melatonin is practically undetectable in the blood during the day and the concentrations rise steeply in the evening remaining high for the duration of the night (exact patterns differ between vertebrate species), then dropping again at dawn. Plasmodia have melatonin receptors [3].

Interestingly, unlike melatonin receptors in vertebrates which are nuclear receptors, the receptors in Plasmodia are membrane receptors. Membrane receptors are much faster than nuclear receptors which is important when a biological event has to be timed with precision. However, the plasmodia do not destroy the red blood cell immediately after receiving the melatonin signal – that would be too early in the evening for the timing to be adaptive, as the mosquitoes are still too busy looking for mates and mating at that time. Instead, the plasmodia use their own circadian clocks to measure the exact timing of eruption. In a way, it appears that the host melatonin signal entrains (synchronizes) the clocks in plasmodia, and then the Plasmodium clock determines the phase (exact timing) for the eruption out of red blood cells.

Different species of Anopheles and even geographically distinct populations of the same species have different times of peak foraging (biting) activity. In each geographical region, the local population (or species) of Plasmodium evolved the timing of eruption to match that of the local mosquitoes. Let’s now introduce another player. Apart from the parasite (Plasmodium), the host (a vertebrate, e.g., a human), and the vector (mosquito), one should also consider the predator – insectivorous bats that hunt for mosquitoes. The way that the malaria literature tends to think about timing can schematically be presented like this:

 

There is an assumption that plasmodium eruption, human fever, mosquito foraging and bat hunting are all synchronous. We have already looked at this from the perspective of the Plasmodium – it is adaptive for the Plasmodium for the three bottom lines to be accurate, i.e, that the parasite, the host and the vector are in synchrony. This also means that this is maladaptive to humans. It is also maladaptive to mosquitoes whose fitness does suffer somewhat if they are loaded with parasites. On the other hand, it is maladaptive for mosquitoes and plasmodia, and adaptive for humans and bats, if the peak hunting time for bats coincides with the peak foraging time of mosquitoes. More these two events are in sync, more mosquitoes will get eaten, thus less plasmodia will get into a new host and less humans will get infected. The dynamics of the timing relationship between the four species can be described as an Evolutionary Arms-Race Around The Circadian Clock. While some of the players will try to maximize their fitness by achieving synchrony, the other players maximize their fitness by avoiding synchrony with each other. This can be depicted, for bats and mosquitoes, like this:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In this case, mosquitoes evolve to forage at later times of night, and bats evolve to track the mosquitoes by hunting later at night. This can go on back and forth endlessly. But, and here is a big “but”. This model is quite oversimplified as it posits only four players and for each player an absolute loyalty to the other three. But is the real world that simple? Plasmodium species are pretty host-specific. Species that thrive inside humans may not thrive or even survive inside the bodies of other animals and vice versa. So, the parasite is pretty loyal to its host. It is also completely dependent on Anopheles – it will most likely not survive inside a different kind of mosquito. The same mosquito that usually bites a human will happily take a blood meal from another animal. This is actually used as one of the prevention techniques: a village is surrounded by fields full of cattle, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys or camels. The mosquitoes coming out of the woods at night encounter these animals first and get satiated with blood before they ever encounter humans. The animals themselves do not get sick. Bats are unlikely, in my opinion, to be specialized on Anopheles as their only prey. If there are no mosquitoes around, they will happily hunt other insects (and the tropical regions where malaria is common are swarming with many species of insects!). I think that involvement of bats in the arms-race is the weakest aspect of the hypothesis. Here are four basic types of bat hunting activity that are theoretically possible:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The hypothesis suggests that bats mostly fly around midnight when the mosquitoes are most active, i.e., the bats are winners and mosquitoes loosers in the arms-race (A) . If the peak is at some other point during the night, that would suggest that bats are involved in the arms-race but the mosquitoes are currently winning (B). This may also suggest that bats highly prefer some other type of prey. The bats may be active throughout the night (C) which seems most likely. Finally, the bats may have a bimodal distribution: a lot of hunting early and late at night with a siesta right around midnight (D). This would suggest that mosquitoes have found their best temporal niche in that dangerous world, i.e, although the bats are not involved in the arms-race, the mosquitoes are and are thus winners, without making the bats “loosers” in the process. What is the real story? I don’t know. Obviously, it is possible to monitor patterns of bat activity [6,7], yet it still needs to be done in regions in which malaria is common. Some of the bats studied in the USA follow predominantly pattern C from the figure above, and it is not too far-fetched to hypothesize that all bats everywhere have similar patterns:

How does jet-lag figure in here? Apart from the hypothesis stated by Kumar and Sharma that itch sensitivity to mosquito bites gets displaced (and what I added – that temperature rhythm is also displaced), jet-lag will have other effects, too. Let’s look at possible effects it may have on people who already have malaria (and you’ll see why I had to use so much space describing all of the details of the arms-race above!). Will jet-lag affect the way our body copes with the infection? What are the Anopheles patterns? While they search for blood around midnight, that is not the only time they are flying around. Most of the early part of night is spent looking for mates, mating and laying eggs [8]. Thus, they are easy pickings for bats at times when they are not actively seeking humans. It appears that becoming diurnal is not a good option for Anopheles in the tropics – perhaps there are more birds there than bats, or the birds are more dangerous? It is not impossible for a mosquito to become diurnal – the mosquito we are used to seeing around here – the Culex – is crepuscular (dawn and dusk) and the Asian tiger mosquito is fully diurnal.
 

 

To summarize: according to the Kumar/Sharma hypothesis, being jet-lagged increases the chances for contracting malaria. On the other hand, if you already have the disease, it may be good for you to get jet-lagged! As long as you tell your physician that malaria is a serious option so the symptoms are not misinterpreted, you should be better off jet-lagged, allowing your body to fight the disease one plasmodium at a time. Finally, as a matter of public health policy, how does one get the whole population of malarial patients in one country jet-lagged so as to reduce the transmission rates? Should hospitals induce jet-lag in malaria patients by shifting light-cycles or administering melatonin? How do the pros and cons of such treatment balance? Ah, so many hypotheses, so little data! I hope someone studies this in the future. One last thing – notice that much of the work described above was performed by researchers outside of USA. Apart from a little bit of cellular physiology, most of the information comes from ecological field-work, and ALL of it is inspired by and informed by evolutionary theory. Not a single gel was run. Now, I am not dissing molecular biology. Malaria is the only complex parasitic disease in which all players (plasmodium, mosquito and human) have their complete genomes sequenced, and much will be gleaned from such data in terms of designing better anti-malarial drugs, etc. But, as the above research shows, Big (molecular) Biology is not necessary for findings that have a potential to seriously affect the infection and transmission rates of the disease.


(5)      Applications of Autonomous-Agent Computer Models, Non-Linear

Dynamics, Complexity, Chaos & Game Theory to the Control and Eradication of Malaria:

 

CONVENTIONAL DOGMA HAS HISTORICALLY MANDATED THAT EFFECTIVE CONTROL REQUIRES LETHALITY (>90%) FOR ADULT MOSQUITOES BEFORE THEY CAN REACH THE AGE OF INFECTIVITY

 

THE FOLLOWING BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ANSWER:

– IS LETHALITY BEFORE INFECTIVITY TRULY AN ABSOLUTE NECESSITY?

– ARE ANY ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES EQUALLY EFFECTIVE?

DOES LETHALITY BEFORE INFECTIVITY ENCOURAGE THE EVOLUTION

OF IMMUNITY ENOUGH TO BE A VIABLE CONCERN? 

 

(5. a.) Multiple Malaria Infection Inhibits Spread Of Parasite, ScienceDaily (Mar. 27, 2007) Clickable Link>  Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research., People who are frequently infected with malaria parasites can develop immunity against the gametocyte, the infectious stage. This immunity inhibits the spread of the parasite. Dutch researcher Mike van der Kolk discovered this during his research into malaria transmission under the inhabitants of Cameroon, Senegal and Indonesia. …The gametocyte is the developmental stage of the parasite that can be transmitted from people to the mosquito. … People who live in areas where malaria is prevalent, can develop a natural immunity that stops the development of the parasite in the mosquito. This prevents the parasite from spreading further. The presence of this immunity, the so-called transmission-reducing activity, is determined using a laboratory test. Van der Kolk discovered that people who are often infected with malaria could quickly acquire this immunity. He also found that people with higher numbers of gametocytes are more frequently immune.

 

(5. b.) Can fungal biopesticides control malaria? Thomas, M.B & Read, A.F. 2007. Nature Microbiology Reviews, 5: 377-383., Matthew B. Thomas is at CSIRO Entomology, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia Correspondence to MBT e-mail: matthew.thomas@csiro.au Correspondence to MBT e-mail: (Copy/Paste) matthew.thomas@csiro.au, Andrew F. Read is at the Institutes of Evolutionary Biology & Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK, Clickable Link to [PDF] > Can fungal biopesticides control malaria? , To HTML>  View as HTML, Copy/Paste Link> http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/1842/2089/1/Thomas+Read+Nature+Reviews+Microbiology.pdf

The production of Green Muscle® and Green Guard® show that effective biopesticide products based on entomopathogenic fungi can be developed. … Importantly, of all the products for locust and grasshopper control, they have the lowest environmental impact and can be used near water courses, organic crops and conservations areas, satisfying the demand for more environmentally sustainable technologies.

Proof of concept for malaria control – Several studies have investigated the use of microbial biocontrol to kill mosquitoes (for a review, see REFS 13-15). Typically, virulent pathogens have been isolated, with the aim of developing biopesticides to kill mosquito larvae. More recently several studies have highlighted the potential use of fungal pathogens to kill adult mosquitoes. The common approach behind these studies is to infect insects by exposure to oil-formulated fungal spores that have been applied to surfaces on which adult mosquitoes rest after blood meals. Initial laboratory-based bioassays revealed that mosquitoes were readily infected by exposure to entomopathogenic fungi and that some fungal isolates caused 100% mortality of adult Anopheles and Culex spp. in 7-14 days, depending on dose, formulation and fungal strain. Further studies used a rodent malaria model to examine the effect of fungal infection on malaria transmission potential (see FIG 3). The results indicated an 80-fold reduction in the number of mosquitoes able to transmit malaria following exposure of the insects to the fungal pathogen. …

Finally, a small-scale study in village houses in Tanzania confirmed the feasibility of infecting mosquitoes with virulent fungi under field conditions in Africa. This  investigation used a relatively low dose of an experimental formulation applied over a small surface area, but still showed that 34% of mosquitoes collected from targeted village houses were infected with fungi. … Epidemiological models predict that even this relatively low level of infection would result in a 75% reduction in Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR) at this field site. The study used fungus-treated black cloths that were pinned to the ceilings of dwellings. These cloths could be repeatedly treated with spores at relatively little cost or inconvenience.

However, the literature is littered with examples of promising microbial agents and candidate biopesticide technologies yet, as evidenced by the very limited penetration of the chemical pesticide market, very few realize this potential. So we consider next some of the features that represent both the strengths and weaknesses of the fungal biopesticide approach.  …

Even small reductions in adult mosquito longevity after an infective blood meal can have a large impact on malaria dynamics. Thus, unlike most other insect control problems it is not necessary to rapidly kill the mosquito with a virulent pathogen. Moreover, emphasis on the ‘pesticidal’ properties of entomopathogens overlooks their potential to influence insect behaviour and fitness in subtle ways that may negatively impact malaria transmission, without necessarily reducing vector density. For example, numerous insect-pathogen studies indicate the potential for sub- or pre-lethal pathogen effects. Locusts infected with entomopathogenic fungi have altered feeding behaviour, fat body accumulation, development rate, fecundity, mobility and predator escape responses

before death. Similarly, preliminary research indicates that infected mosquitoes may

have a reduced propensity to feed prior to death and there is evidence that fungal

pathogens can affect not only the mosquito, but also the survivorship of malaria within

the mosquito. The mechanisms that underlie this anti-malaria effect are unknown but

might include alterations in host nutritional balance leading to resource competition, up-

regulation of immune responses, or production of secondary metabolites in the

haemolymph.

The deleterious effects of sub-lethal pathogens on the capacity of insects to

function as vectors of disease has been virtually ignored although sub-lethal effects are

the most common outcome of infection. Exploiting sub-lethal effects of pathogens could present new opportunities…

Evolution of resistanceAnopheles mosquitoes have proved adept at evolving resistance to chemical Insecticides. Indeed, resistance to insecticides has appeared in the major insect vectors from every genus, with examples of resistance to every chemical class of insecticide. Biopesticide control would be similarly unsustainable if the widespread use of fungal entomopathogens provided a selective pressure that resulted in evolution of fungal resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes.

Little is known about genetic variation in fungal susceptibility among Anopheles populations. All mosquitoes may be fully susceptible (we can find no records of complete resistance against fungal pathogens in any insect). However, there is evidence for genetic variation in susceptibility (time to death) to entomopathogenic fungi in aphids and Drosophila, as well as environmentally and behaviourally-mediated

host responses that alter effective resistance .

Moreover in the long history of malaria control, resistance to all interventions has eventually evolved, even in the absence of pre-existing resistance. If biopesticides are to avoid the depressing fate of so many other malaria control measures, we need to maximise the reduction in malaria transmission without imposing strong selection on vector populations. There are several reasons for thinking that this might be achievable with a fungal biopesticide.

First, the negative effects of pathogenic fungi on the mosquito host occur relatively late in the lifecycle of the mosquito. Fungal-induced mosquito mortality and reduced propensity to blood feed occur after most mosquitoes in natural populations have already died (FIG 4). It is well known in the context of the evolution of ageing that beneficial mutations acting late in life are subject to weak selection because they confer fitness benefits after the majority of individuals have anyway ceased reproducing.

Thus, even if Anopheles could develop resistance to fungi, biopesticides might impose only weak selection for that resistance. Such reductions in selection pressure could translate into decades more of effective use of a product. Moreover, there may actually be no selection for resistance. If the possession of fungal resistance mechanisms entails metabolic costs, all individuals in a population would pay the price for a benefit experienced only by a few. Indeed, while it might be tempting to deploy more virulent isolates that either kill insects more quickly, or kill insects at a constant daily rate, this capacity for killing would need to be balanced against potentially sharp increases in selection pressure to evolve resistance.

A second reason for thinking that fungal biopesticides would not be undermined by mosquito resistance is the possibility that fungal infection has a direct anti-malarial effect, reducing the prevalence of sporozoites. It would be highly desirable to isolate fungal strains that had an increased propensity to reduce mosquito infectiousness, since this effect of the pathogen does not result in selection for fungal resistance in mosquitoes. Indeed, some fungal isolates can reduce sporozoite prevalence without causing any mosquito mortality (Blanford, Read and Thomas unpubl data); this effect could in principle be enhanced by paratransgenesis (Box).

A third reason for thinking that biopesticides could be evolution-proof is that,  mosquitoes infected with malaria parasites are more likely to die following fungal infection than mosquitoes that are not infected with the parasite (FIG 3). Malaria-infected mosquitoes normally comprise less than 10% of the insect population. If the main effect of a fungal isolate was to reduce the fitness of malaria-infected mosquitoes (rather than any mosquito), this should reduce selection pressure for fungal resistance across the mosquito population overall, and may even select for increased malaria refractoriness. Again, this would reduce malaria transmission without imposing a selection for fungal resistance. …

Concluding remarks … The specific features of fungal infection such as late acting mortality, transmission blocking and host behavioural changes, provide opportunities to minimise the risk of resistance evolution. Indeed with fungal biopesticides, we are in a perhaps unique position in malaria control history: we can think about preventing evolutionary outcomes now, rather than after a once promising method has begun to fail.

 

 

 

Figure 4. The sustainability of chemical and biological interventions against adult mosquitoes; (a) In their normal life cycle female mosquitoes take a blood meal every 2-4 days and use this to mature sequential batches of eggs (x-axis). Natural mortality is generally high (survivors, y-axis) such that the majority of the reproductive output (vertical arrows) from a population accrues over the first 1-3 feeding/oogenic cycles.

Relatively few mosquitoes actually survive long enough (12-14 days) in the field for the malaria parasite to complete its development, migrate to the mosquito mouthparts and get transmitted to a new human host (‘infectious’). (b) Exposure to a fast acting insecticide following the first blood meal reduces survivorship and prevents malaria transmission.

However, the rapid mortality carries a big fitness cost and creates a substantial selection pressure for development of resistance. (c) Relative slow speed of fungal kill helps mitigate selection pressure as infected mosquitoes can still complete the important early oogenic cycles. An isolate that allows a high level of survival (and hence egg production) over the first 7-9 days, for instance, but then causes extensive mortality will still reduce malaria transmission but will impose little selection for resistance.

(5. c.) Possible contributing factors to the paucity of yellow fever epidemics in the Ashanti region of Ghana, west Africa. P A Addy, R K Esena, S K Atuahene, East Afr Med J., Jan 1996 (Vol. 73, Issue 1, Pages 3-9). Article Link> MEDLINE | Related Records

(5. d.)  Predation and Prey Community Structure: An Experimental Study of the Effect of Mosquito Larvae on the Protozoan Communities of Pitcher Plants, John F. Addicott Clickable Abstract: pp. 475–492 | Abstract  Clickable Article> See full-text article at JSTOR

(5. e.) A framework for determining the fitness consequences of antipredator behavior, Behavioral Ecology, Behavioral Ecology 2007 18(1):267-270; oi:10.1093/beheco/arl064; Beverly C. Ajiea,b, Lauren M. Pintorb, Jason Wattersb, Jacob L. Kerbyb, John I. Hammondb and Andrew Siha,b; a Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA b Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA; Address correspondence to B.C. Ajie. E-mail: bcajie@ucdavis.edu

 

(5. f.)   Stage-specific manipulation of a mosquito’s host-seeking behavior by the malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, Behavioral Ecology Vol. 13 No. 6: 816-820; Link> International Society for Behavioral Ecology, Jacob C. Koellaa, Linda Rieua and Richard E. L. Paulb; a Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, CNRS UMR 7103, Université P. & M. Curie, Paris, France b Unité de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire des Insectes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; Address correspondence to J.C. Koella, Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, CC237, Université P. & M. Curie, 7 quai Saint Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France. E-mail: jkoella@snv.jussieu.fr

ABSTRACT – We present experimental evidence that different stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum differentially affect the host-seeking behavior of its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. In uninfected mosquitoes, host-seeking behavior is continued if mosquitoes have ingested less than a threshold volume of blood, whereas a larger blood meal inhibits host seeking. …Mosquitoes infected with oocysts (which cannot be transmitted) had a smaller threshold volume and were less likely to return for further probing, whereas individuals infected with transmissible sporozoites increased the threshold volume required to inhibit host-seeking behavior. We conclude that the stage-specific effect of the parasite on host-seeking behavior is likely to be an active manipulation by the parasite to increase its transmission success. Key words: Aedes aegypti, behavioral manipulation, host-seeking behavior, malaria, Plasmodium gallinaceum.

INTRODUCTION – The mosquito Anopheles gambiae infected with sporozoites of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum bites more people during a single night than uninfected mosquitoes. The mechanisms underlying this observation are not clear but could be the result of at least two synergistic processes. First, the parasite could increase the mosquito’s motivation to resume a meal after it has been interrupted, thus increasing the probability that it bites several times. Second, the parasite could decrease the amount of blood obtained at each biting attempt, thereby increasing the number of bites required to obtain a given amount of blood…

Not all stages of the malaria parasite, however, would benefit from an increase in the mosquito’s biting rate. After infection, malaria oocysts must develop for several days on the mosquito’s midgut wall before they can produce the sporozoites, the only stage that can be transmitted to the vertebrate host. During this developmental period, the only way to increase overall transmission is to increase the mosquito’s survival. An important component of the probability that a mosquito lives long enough to transmit malaria may be the mortality of the mosquito associated with blood-feeding. Therefore, oocysts should be expected to decrease the biting rate of mosquitoes, in contrast to the sporozoites. …

DISCUSSION – At least in the laboratory situation described here, the malaria parasite P. gallinaceum affected the host-seeking behavior of its mosquito vector, A. aegypti, in two ways. First, sporozoites decreased the amount of blood imbibed in a fixed amount of time. This has been suspected as the mechanism leading to lower fecundity in infected mosquitoes, and is indeed expected as the malaria sporozoites modify apyrase, an enzyme in the mosquito’s saliva with anti-coagulatory properties, to make the uptake of blood less efficient. Therefore, to obtain the same amount of blood, infected mosquitoes must therefore bite more often than uninfected ones. The effect of decreasing the efficiency of blood-feeding was enhanced by a second mechanism of manipulation: altering the host-seeking behavior if the blood meal is interrupted before the mosquito has obtained a full blood meal. Moreover, the two stages of the parasite within the mosquito, oocysts and sporozoites, affected the blood-feeding behavior in opposite ways. Thus the sporozoites, which can be transmitted to the next vertebrate host bitten by the mosquito, increased the volume of blood required to inhibit the mosquito’s host-seeking behavior. In contrast, the oocysts, the developmental stage that cannot be transmitted, decreased this blood volume.

One of the main determinants of the mosquito’s survival is the risk associated with biting. Thus, the oocysts can increase the mosquito’s survival and thereby their own transmission by decreasing the mosquito’s biting rate. One of the mechanisms for doing so is to inhibit the host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes that have so little blood in their midgut that they would normally try to increase their blood meal with further biting attempts.

In contrast, the sporozoites require biting for their transmission. Their interest in biting rate, however, does not coincide with the mosquito’s. Although the sporozoites are transmitted during probing, the mosquito’s reproductive success depends not only on biting, but also on surviving for several days to develop and lay its eggs. This asymmetry leads the parasite to favor a higher biting rate than does the mosquito vector, and thus leads the parasite to manipulate the mosquito to bite more frequently. Thus, the combined manipulation for decreased host-seeking behavior by oocysts but for increased motivation by sporozoites increases transmission of the parasite.

Combining these two mechanisms leads to at least two predictions for mosquitoes in natural populations. First, as sporozoites increase the threshold volume of blood that inhibits host-seeking behavior, mosquitoes infected with sporozoites should be found to have more blood than uninfected ones. Second, as sporozoites decrease the amount of blood taken up in a limited time, infected mosquitoes should bite more often to obtain their blood meal and should thus be more likely to bite several people than uninfected ones. Both of these predictions have been found to hold true in a Tanzanian population of A. gambiae infected with Plasmodium falciparum.


(6)      Applications of Autonomous-Agent Computer Models, Complexity, Non-Linear Dynamics, Chaos & Game Theory to the Control & Eradication of Malaria

 

CONVENTIONAL DOGMA HAS HISTORICALLY MANDATED THAT EFFECTIVE CONTROL REQUIRES LETHALITY (>90%) FOR ADULT MOSQUITOES BEFORE THEY REACH THE AGE OF INFECTIVITY

 

COMPUTER MODELS ANSWER:

– IS LETHALITY BEFORE INFECTIVITY TRULY AN ABSOLUTE NECESSITY?

– ARE ANY ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES EQUALLY EFFECTIVE?

– DOES LETHALITY BEFORE INFECTIVITY ENCOURAGE THE EVOLUTION OF

  IMMUNITY ENOUGH TO BE A VIABLE CONCERN? 

 

Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Populations in Biological Systems:  October 5-7, 2007 Tucson, Arizona – conference proceedings in Journal of Biological Dynamics (JBD) and Journal of Difference Equations and Applications (JDEA). Link> Conference Abstracts, CONFERENCE COORDINATOR: LINK> Annette Horn (University of Arizona) ~ Source of the Articles Below

 

(6. a.) “Higher disease prevalence can induce greater sociality; a game theoretic coevolutionary model” Bonds, M.H., D.C. Keenan, A.J. Leidner, and P. Rohani. 2005. Evolution, in press. – The transmission of malaria, for example, is determined by the population dynamics of an animal – the Anopheles mosquito – is itself involved in an evolutionary relationship with the disease that it carries. What makes this topic especially interesting is that human behavior has predictable consequences for the evolution of both the mosquito and the pathogen. Furthermore, the relationship between this behavior and economic growth is predictable. Due to basic interventions such as glass windows and bednets (to name a few), wealthy people tend to be less exposed to the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

(6. b.)On Long-Term Consequences of Selfish Behavior: A Game Theoretic Approach to Host-Pathogen Coevolution.” – UGA study explains peaks and troughs of dengue epidemics –  Contact: Pejman Rohani, 706/542-9249, rohani@uga.edu Mar 21, 2006, 08:10 … inaugural Ecology of Infectious Diseases Lecture at the University of Georgia The University of Georgia. Department of Ecology. Address. 103 Ecology Building. Athens, GA 30602. Phone. (706) 542-9249. E-mail. rohani@uga.edu

Contact: Helen J. Wearing, 706/542-3580, hjw@uga.edu; Pejman Rohani, 706/542-9249, rohani@uga.edu

Scientists have long known that epidemics of dengue fever wax and wane over a period of several years, but they’ve never been quite sure why. … A new study by researchers at the University of Georgia suggests that a brief period of cross-immunity conferred by any one of the four viral strains, or serotypes, that cause dengue explains the timing of epidemics. … In addition to helping resolve a long-standing debate in public health, the study, published this week in the early online edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, gives researchers a framework that can be used to create models that predict dengue outbreaks in both space and time. … The researchers examined 30 years of data from the government of Thailand… They found that cross-immunity alone is enough to create the patterns that are observed in nature.Global warming is allowing the species primarily responsible for spreading dengue (Aedes aegypti, also known as the yellow fever mosquito) to expand its range.  … According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Aedes aegypti and the related Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito) have the potential to spread dengue in sporadic outbreaks in the Southern and Southeastern United States. Rohani said the same modeling techniques he and Wearing used to study dengue can help shed light on the transmission of other multi-strain diseases such as cholera, malaria and influenza. …  “Now with avian influenza being very much on everyone’s mind everyone is beginning to realize that genetic diversity of infectious agents is really important.”

 

(6. c.) Subthreshold and superthreshold coexistence of pathogen variants: Maia Martcheva, Department of Mathematics, The University of Florida, Link> Maia Marcheva, – The impact of host age structure. – It is well known that in the most general epidemic models with multiple pathogen variants a competitive exclusion principle is valid, such that the variant with the highest reproduction number eliminates the rest. Mechanisms such as super-infection, coinfection and cross-immunity can lead to pathogen polymorphism where multiple strains coexist. … the hosts’ chronological age can itself lead to coexistence of microparasites in the most basic model where competitive exclusion will occur without the age structure. Moreover, the host age-structure leads to multiple subthreshold dominance equilibria, and both weakly and strongly subthreshold coexistence. Our results show that the age structure in infectivity can permit the coexistence of competing pathogens when the incidence is of proportionate mixing type frenquency dependent transmission) and at least one of the strains is virulent.

 

(6. d.) Agro-Bats: Experiments and simulation models in agroecology, Thomas Hallam, The University of Tennessee – The bat behavior model during the emergence is governed by rules formulated at the individual level. Through these rules, a group behavior evolves that includes column formation and complex dynamic behavior in space and time, and in addition, the simulations appear consistent with prominent features of emergence videos. This simulation-video compatability is employed to obtain estimates of the numbers of bats in a maturity roost by using the simulation for development of counting methodology, employing the video as research data, and applying the counting procedure in the video. I will also discuss a dynamic model we developed to predict regional ecological functions in agricultural food webs by using indicators such as insect pest herbivory as measured by cotton boll damage and insect emigration from cotton. We find that in the south-central Texas Winter Garden agro-region, the process of insectivory by bats has a considerable impact on both the ecology and valuation of harvest in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic and non-transgenic cotton crops.

Harvesting of agricultural pests by insectivorous bats may enhance the economic value of agricultural systems by reducing the frequency of required spraying and delaying the ultimate need for new pesticides. In the Winter Garden region, the presence of large numbers of insectivorus bats yields a regional summer dispersion of adult pest insects from Bt cotton that is considerably reduced from the moth emigration when bats are absent in either transgenic or non-transgenic crops. This regional decrease of pests impacts insect herbivory on a transcontinental scale.

 

(6. e.) Controlling malaria, William Schaffer – Where the Italian boot meets Sicily one encounters the region called Calabria, the character of which, as Norman Douglas explained in 1915, is incomprehensible absent reference to malaria. “Malaria is the key,” Douglas wrote, “to a correct understanding of the landscape; it explains the inhabitants, their mode of life, their habits, and history.” Three decades later, the American army responded to these self-same conditions with marsh draining and DDT. Eradication efforts continued after the war, and in 1970 the World Health Organization declared the country free from malaria. Regrettably, the Italian success story has not been universally replicated. Today, a century after Douglas wrote his travel book, worldwide infection rates remain on the order of 300 million souls of which 1-3 million die yearly. Not surprisingly, the social and economic costs are enormous.

The present talk reviews contemporary control strategies from the viewpoint
of
mathematical epidemiology. Following MacDonald, we argue that the use of insecticides, i.e., killing, or at least repelling, adult mosquitoes, is inherently the most effective way of combating the pandemic. Next in intrinsic efficacy are strategies that reduce the bite rate. Other approaches—anti-malarials, vaccines and the introduction of plasmodium-resistant (GM) mosquitoes–are inherently less likely to achieve eradication, though any of these, if sufficiently effective, can, in principle, achieve the desired result. In this regard, we discuss the possibility of using seasonal fluctuations in mosquito abundance and disease prevalence to “slingshot” GM mosquitoes into natural populations.

 

(6. f.) A mathematical model for the dynamics of malaria in mosquitoes feeding on a heterogeneous host population, Nakul Chitnis – We describe and develop a difference equation model for the dynamics of malaria in a mosquito population feeding on, infecting, and getting infected from a  heterogeneous population of hosts. Using the force of infection from different classes of humans to mosquitoes as parameters, we evaluate a number of derived parameters, which can be compared to field data, which measure malaria transmission levels. By assigning different types of vector control interventions to different classes of humans, and evaluating the corresponding levels of malaria transmission, we can compare the effectiveness of these interventions. We show a numerical example of the effects of increasing coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in a human population where the predominant malaria vector is Anopheles gambiae.

 


(6. g.)   Netlogo JAVA Browser Bite Model: Humans & Mosquitoes in a Room:

Click-on to Link >  malaria This will run in your browser over the net (Java), so there’s No software download required… created with NetLogo (see below)… Home Page> zacbrown.org/netlogo-malaria/malaria.nlogo, Copy> http://zacbrown.org/netlogo-malaria

 

NETLOGO – For More Information Visit: The Center for Connected Learning (CCL) and Computer-Based Modeling:  – Click>  http://nlogo.org/  –  Copy> http://nlogo.org/

FOR FREE Download of Your Own Netlogo Software Program: http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/

WHAT IS IT? – This is a very simple model of a vector transmission of Malaria in a room of X number of humans with X number of mosquitos.

HOW IT WORKS – The mosquitos will randomly fly about until they are within a certain attraction radius of a human and then they will fly directly to that human and bite them. After this there will be a certain period in which this mosquito will not bite a human.

HOW TO USE IT – Select the number of humans and mosquitos, the attraction radius you’d like the mosquitos to work in, and the length of time you’d like the digestion to go on for.

 

TO START – Press “setup” button first, then the “go” to start.

 

YOU CONTROL – Four Sliders: initial number of humans”;  “initial number of mosquitoes”;  “attraction radius”;  “digest time,” and “human movement delay

 

 

(6. h.) The Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Risk Perception, Anthony Leiserowitz, Decision Science Resource Institute Click Here> link to abstract


(7)      CURSORY PATENT SEARCH OF RELATED AREAS

 

 

(7. a.) Detection and monitoring of flying insects   

Patent Abstract LINK>  Abstract | Drawing | Description | Claims

Detection and monitoring of flying insects of a given species can be facilitated by placing inside a lure-baited trap a microcontroller assembly that can sense and discriminate the presence of that species, usually by the sound it makes and then sending a positive report to a central monitoring station by satellite, internet, or antennae transmission. … features include: identification of insect species by a characteristic acoustic frequency range, a pattern stored in the microcontroller … Application number: 10/627,654, Publication number: US 2004/0093190 A1, Filing date: Jul 28, 2003, Inventors: Morton Beroza, Roman Machan, Issued patent: 7020996 (Issue date Apr 4, 2006), U.S. Classification, 702189000, International Classification, G06F015/00

 

(7. b.) MISC. Non-Relevant PATENT EXAMPLE Many Patents in discussing video signal compression and transmission refer to “mosquito” noise,  which has nothing to do with the insect, nor doe they refer to sound or other-such when they speak of  “noise” or “signal volume.”  Example: A ringing detector detects mosquito noise and ringing for outputting an image signal   smoothed by a horizontal/vertical high-pass filter when mosquito noise and ringing are detected while outputting the image signal…. A noise detector comprising: a high-frequency component extraction circuit extracting a high-frequency component of an input image signal…

 

(8)        LIGHT-RELATED TECHNOLOGIES & PRODUCTS

 

 

(8. a.)   The BoGo Light –  (BoGo means Buy one, Give one.) – Contact: Mark Bent, Chairman and CEO, Former U.S. Marine, diplomat, and oil company executive, Mark Bent invented the BOGO Light and founded SunNight Solar.; 1720 Bissonnet St., Houston, Texas 77005, F: 713-522-2320; 713-410-3327E; Joan Dodd, VP of Business Development, SunNight Solar, 1720 Bissonnet Houston, Texas 77005, P: 713-410-3327, F: 713-522-2320, E: info@bogolight.com

Malaria – Mosquitoes are attracted to kerosene light, but they are not naturally attracted to light given off by white light emitting diodes (LEDs). The reason for this is that mosquitoes have receptors which detect carbon dioxide, and kerosene lanterns emit volumes of carbon dioxide whereas LEDs do not. This suggests that people using our LED powered lights may lower their risk of contracting malaria. This is an exciting idea, and we have contacted the Center for Disease Control about conducting follow-on studies once our lights become more widely distributed.

Why does light matter? – Two billion people living in the developing world rely on kerosene lanterns, candles, and single-use battery flashlights for light at night. Not only are these options expensive, dangerous, and harmful to the environment, they also negatively impact health, education, and security. Literacy and Education Our lights provide an opportunity for children to read at night and to extend school hours. .. Kerosene is increasingly expensive, especially given the recent rise in the price of petrochemicals, so many families cannot afford it. Flashlights are even more expensive, and candles do not provide adequate lighting to read. …

Environmental Impacts Global Warming – Our lights help reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Dr. Evan Mills of the US Department of Energy states that a single kerosene lantern, used four hours a day, emits over 100 kg of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere each year. …Therefore, replacing approximately 52 kerosene lanterns in the developing world with solar powered lights is equivalent to removing one vehicle from the roads here in the US.

Battery Groundwater Contamination – …Mercury is a heavy metal with high toxicity. After kerosene and candles, the most prevalent source of lighting in the developing world is conventional flashlights. …Our products are powered by rechargeable batteries, which only need to be replaced every two to three years, and we are also working on a buy-back/exchange program.

Deforestation and Top Soil Erosion – …Anecdotal reporting and common sense indicate that wood fires in developing countries are kept going long after the meal preparation to provide residual lighting. The loss of underbrush contributes to top soil erosion, which negatively impacts farmers.

Health and Safety Cancer – According to the World Bank, 1.6 million people die each year from indoor air pollution associated with the burning of wood, dung, agricultural residues, and coal. That is one person every twenty seconds. The World Bank also notes that 780 million people in the developing world, mostly women and children, are exposed to kerosene lantern fumes equivalent to two packs of cigarettes a day. More than two-thirds of lung cancer victims in the developing world are female, as women are the primary homemakers. Help us change these alarming statistics by giving them the gift of clean, solar light!

Accidental Fires – Hundreds of thousands of people are injured or killed each year and their homes destroyed by accidental fires caused by the widespread use of kerosene lanterns. Help us reduce these preventable tragedies by replacing their kerosene lanterns with safe, solar light.

Poverty and Economic Costs – A study conducted by the joint UN Development Program/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) found that rural households spending as much as US$10 per month on lighting from candles, kerosene, and dry cell batteries. In some cases, this is up to thirty percent of a developing world family’s income.

Women Empowerment and Family Security – Night time is a dangerous time for many people in developing countries, especially for refugees. …The freedom to move safely at night will greatly improve their quality of life, and parents equipped with lights can better observe and protect their children at night.

  1. Night Glow Strip—BOGO is easy to find in the dark
    2. Solar Panel—Lasts 20 years, charges in 8 hours, and provides 4-5 hours of light
    3. Hard ABS Plastic Exterior—Highly water- and shock-resistant
    4. Carrying Hook—hang it up to illuminate a wider area
    5. Battery Compartment—3 standard NiCad or NiMH AA rechargeable batteries
    6. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)—6 super-bright LEDs, enough light to read at night Weight: 1 lb.

The Future – The task light is just the first step in our effort to change the world. Here are some of our exciting plans for the future. – Much of the developing world lacks access to clean water, so we will begin developing a solar powered water purification system. – Too many newborns in the developing world die from conditions easily preventable with proper lighting. We will shortly start researching and developing a solar powered light that can help newborns suffering from jaundice. We recommended the following links and resources:

http://www.ifc.org/led
http://eetd.lbl.gov/emills/PUBS/Fuel_Based_Lighting.html
http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/EETD-diode-lighting.html
http://eetd.lbl.gov/emills/PUBS/Specter.html
http://www.allafrica.com

 

A Market Diffusion and Energy Impact Model for Solid-State Lighting.”Drennen, Thomas. 2001. Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2001-2830J, 23 August 2001.

Lighting Up the Andes.” Fairley, Peter. 2004. IEEE Spectrum Magazine, Vol. 41, No. 12, pp. 44-49, December 2004.

Energy-Efficient Lighting in China: Problems and Prospects.”Fu Min, G., E. Mills, and Q. Zhang. 1997. Energy Policy 25 (1): 77-83 (January).
Technical and Economic Performance Analysis of Kerosene Lamps and Alternative Approaches to Illumination in Developing Countries,” Mills, E. 2003. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report.

The Specter of Fuel-Based Lighting”. “The Role of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems in Meeting Humanitarian Needs in Camps for Refugees and Internally Displaced People” Mills, E. Science, 27 May 2005,
“The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid – Eradicating Poverty Through Profits”, C.K. Prahalad, Wharton School Publishing, 2005

 

(8. b.) Adventure Plus Multi-Tool  – Clickable Link> http://www.livescience.com/  and Clickable Link> http://www.livesciencestore.com/index.html

 

 

 

Adventure Plus Multi-Tool – A high-intensity LED flashlight lights your way home and a liquid-filled floating compass makes sure you get there. Keep track of the temperature with the digital thermometer. Get a close look at anything you need-or don’t-with the 5x magnifying glass. A safety mirror, don’t shave without it! A safety whistle, in case you need to put a stop to that schoolyard scuffle. And a water-proof, dry-storage compartment so you don’t end up with wet documents when you need dry documents. $19.95  Link> http://www.livesciencestore.com/57960.html

Specifications: Hi-Intensity LED (white), Liquid-filled floating dial compass, Digital thermometer in F and C, Magnifier 5x, Safety mirror, Safety whistle, Dry storage compartment, Quick-Release lanyard included; Wt.> 2oz (56.7g), Dim.> 4-3/8″ x 1-1/2″ x 3/4″ (11.1 x 3.8 x 1.9cm) – Consumer serviceable battery (2 CR1616) for flashlight

 

(8. c.)   The Forever Flashlight (Picture Not Provided) – It’s the last flashlight you’ll ever need to buy because it never requires batteries. Just give the Forever Flashlight a 15- to 30-second shake and you’ll get up to five minutes of super-bright LED light that’s visible for up to a mile! It works by the Faraday Principle of electromagnetic energy. That is, the shaking causes an internal magnet to pass repeatedly through a metal coil, setting up an electric current that powers the white LED. The important thing is that you needn’t worry about batteries dying, and the LED light will never need replacing! It’s waterproof and even floats on water! It was named one of the Best Products of 2002 by USA Today and Business Week. The Forever Flashlight measures 8.5″x2.5″. Price $24.95

 

(8. d.) Night Sky Projector Clock – Project time into space, see the cosmos on your ceiling, let space-age alarms take you to tomorrow – Price $44.95

  • Projector alarm clock displays the time in huge, easy-to-read numbers on the ceiling
    • Three different nighttime cosmic backgrounds
  • Space age sound effects will bring you gently into a new tomorrow

 

Specifications: Lens swivels and focuses for ceiling or wall projection, Full feature digital clock, 10 minute auto shut-off (time and image projector), AC adapter, Requires 3 AAA batteries (not included), Ages 10 and up

 

(8. e.)   Fabric Absorbs Sunlight to Produce Light at Night, Clickable> http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2007/0606-light_up_tents.htm

BACKGROUND: Materials scientists are developing camping tents that light up on the inside simply by plugging it into a battery. But there are no bulbs of any sort. The fabric itself emits light. Crosslink, a leader in electroactive polymer materials, is developing a crushable, durable, lightweight electroluminescent technology based on polythiophene, a plastic that conducts electricity. It can be made to emit either visible light or infrared light. ADVANTAGES: The treated fabric panels serve two potential purposes. First, the panels can light the inside of the tent with visible light, replacing the need for traditional bulbs…. SuperFlex can also withstand being twisted, punctured, torn or scrunched-up without losing its ability to light up

 

(8. f.) Lighting Africa, Clickable> http://lightingafrica.org/

Lighting Africa is a World Bank Group initiative aimed at providing up to 250 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa with access to non-fossil fuel based, low cost, safe, and reliable lighting products with associated basic energy services by the year 2030.

 

(8. g.)   Inhabitat – Lighting for the Developing World, Copy/Paste> http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/03/12/cheap-leds-to-light-up-africa-and-beyond/

Clickable> Inhabitat » Cheap LEDs to Light Up Africa and Beyond

 

(8. h.) Portable Light Reading Mat – Clickable to Article>  http://www.miller-mccune.com/article/197 ; Clickable to Site> http://www.portablelight.org/read_mat.html

The soft form of the Reading Mat is versatile and physically adaptable for a variety of reading, writing and work tasks. By day, users can harvest and store electrical energy from sunlight. At night, the Reading Mat emits up to four hours of white, digital light. Innovative electronics optimize the efficiency of the solid state lighting and the optical properties of the textile integration design maximize the usable light output.

Each Portable Light unit consists of a 17-by-17-inch fabric panel. Two flexible solar panels are sewn on one side; these power a lithium cell phone battery, tucked in a small pocket on the corner. On the other side, stitched at opposite ends of the fabric, are two LED “chips” of roughly the same dimensions as a postage stamp — a recent innovation formed by stacking thin slices of the crystal into a single sheet. A shiny aluminum film coats the fabric, reflecting the light emitted by the LEDs.

 

 

(8. i.)  Cheap Flexible Lamps Made with Aluminum Foil, Corey Binns, LiveScience

 

Cheap, skinny aluminum foil lamps may soon illuminate our lives instead of big, bulky light bulbs. Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign made the low-cost lamps by treating aluminum foil bought at the grocery store with an acidic bath. The new light source, which is lighter, brighter, and more efficient than incandescent light, is described in the June issue of the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. “We wanted to make this technology as inexpensive as we possibly could,” said physicist Gary Eden…The light can be flexible and hang on curved surfaces. Because aluminum is lightweight, the light is also. The flexible lamps not only have potential to light up homes and businesses, they may help treat diseases too … as a treatment for psoriasis, … ultraviolet light of certain wavelengths can drive it into remission. … “What we are envisioning is a phototherapeutic bandage …plug it in, watch a movie, tear off the light, and throw it away. “

 

 

 

(9)      SOUND & OTHER SENSORS, MECHANISMS, & RELATED DEVICES

 

 

(9. a.) Spy Ear Sound Amplifier – Hearing Device – will amplify sounds up to 40 decibels. $ 7.95 Each – Two for $9.95

 

 

 

(9. b.) Orbitor Electronic Listening – DeviceYour Price $58.95

  • Pick up conversations, nature sounds, and more from 300 feet away.
    • Parabolic dish and mini-microphone feed sound to pro, closed-ear headphones.
    • Frequency controller dial reduces unwanted background noise.
    • Say what? On-board digital recorder captures 2 minutes of sound for playback.
    • Built-in 10x telescope lets you see up close what you are hearing.

 

 

 

 

(9. c.) Hydrazoid Robot Kit

Dimensions: 7.8″ high x 5.0″ wide x 6.2″ long

Build a robot that listens for sounds and then stalks its prey in deadly silence

  • Cool alien-looking robot reacts to sound by moving forward for fifteen seconds
    • Four legs churn in silence as the robot stalks its prey
    • Illuminated fiber-optic antennae cast an unearthly glow over the landscape

If you want this alien-esque robot to move, just clap your hands! The Hydrazoid Robot Kit reacts to sound by moving forward for fifteen seconds. So clap your hands, call its name, or scream in terror when it moves towards you. The Hydrazoid Robot Kit is the easiest and creepiest looking robot you’ll ever make. Using simple hand tools, you can put the Hydrazoid together quickly, for long-lasting fun. The Hydrazoid Robot Kit is the perfect robot to start your journey down the path of Robot Engineer. Just be sure to whisper!  Additional Information, Requires 2 AA batteries (not included), Movement: Four legs driven by DC motor, Control: Sound sensor including condenser microphone.

 

 

(9. d.) RC Dragonfly • Capable of maneuvering in tight spaces, perfect for indoor flight
• Flaps its wings like a real insect • Can take off from any smooth surface • Soar, dive-bomb, hover and glide silently for soft landings • Ultra-light design protects home interiors • Light-up LED eyes alert you of the dragonfly’s status • 2 channel remote to control wing speed and tail rotor speed • Two skill levels, beginner and advanced

 

 

(9. e.) Moving Paper Parts (WINGS) for Robots Technology Review, 2006, Katherine Bourzac, Article>

http://www.technologyreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=17127&channel=infotech&section – Cellulose films could provide flapping wings and cheap artificial muscles for robots. Researchers at Inha University in South Korea have demonstrated that  cellulose, the main ingredient in paper, can bend in response to electricity. The treated cellulose is lightweight, inexpensive, and has low power requirements, compared with similar electrically active materials. The Korean researchers are now working with NASA to develop insect-sized, wirelessly powered flying vehicles with flapping paper wings. …The researchers, led by Jaehwan Kim, associate professor at the university, made the electrically active cellulose … called electroactive polymers, that have generated excitement in the scientific community for their potential uses in many areas: artificial muscles, chemical sensors, visual displays, the moving parts of robots, and batteries.” The value of electrically active paper is that it’s lightweight and has a high deflection [movement] at low voltage” compared to traditional electroactive polymers, says Sang Choi, senior research scientist at the NASA Langley Research Center… the tip of a 30-millimeter-long strip of electroactive paper was displaced 4.2 millimeters. Indeed, the strength of the electric field required to move the tip of the paper to its maximum displacement is one to two orders of magnitude less than is required by other electroactive polymers. And the paper can change shape quickly, moving back and forth as fast as once every 0.06 seconds. Cellulose is cheap and readily available — Kim’s film can even be made by treating commercially available paper. By comparison, the most commonly used electrically active polymer, polyaniline, costs $68 per gram, says Victoria Finkenstadt, a research chemist at the USDA Agricultural Research Service.

 

(9. f.) Researchers are testing whether robotic dragonflies could be agile and elusive fliers, Technology Review, June 11, 2008,  Kristina Grifantini, Link>  http://www.technologyreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=20886&channel=infotech&sectionOne day, the U.S. military hopes to use tiny flying robots, equipped with cameras and sensors, for surveillance. Looking to understand such abilities, scientists at the Royal Veterinary College, in England, and the University of Ulm, in Germany, have developed a robotic dragonfly to measure the current flows over and under the wings at different flap cycles. “The one specific advantage you get in four wings is the maneuverability and ability to pick things out of the air and hover and dart around,” says Jonathan How, a professor at MIT who works on flying robots but was not involved in the dragonfly project. In terms of four-wing versus two-wing systems for a biomimetic micro air vehicle, “it’s a trade-off,” says Fritz-Olaf Lehmann, a researcher at the University of Ulm who worked on the studyIn creating an autonomous micro air vehicle, “every little bit of efficiency counts,” says Robert Wood, a professor at Harvard University who has developed some of the smallest flying robots. Michael Dickinson, a professor at Caltech who works on understanding and mimicking fly flight, says that interest in dragonflies is growing and that the Lehmann paper is not the first containing this kind of analysis but “one in a floodgate of papers.”

 

(9. g.) DelFly Micro – web site http://www.delfly.nl, click> http://www.delfly.nl/?site=DIII&menu=&lang=en

DelFly micro is part of the DelFly’s four-year programme in cooperation between ASTI and TNO. This program, DelFly NaNo, was started in January 2007. The goal of the DelFly NaNo program is to build a flying DelFly with a wingspan of 5cm, with the objective of carrying a payload onboard. This means that also the development of smaller cameras, actuators, data links etc is necessary.

DelFly micro will be the first step in this process, and will be a DelFly with a wingspan of 10cm (wingtip to wingtip) which will be used as a test environment for all new ideas and technologies. Starting from the DelFly micro, the size will be gradually reduced to the required dimensions. DelFly II was started as a project as the Technical University of Delft . A cooperation between TNO and ASTI determined the goals and requirements for the DelFly II project. For more information about the DelFly II see the specifications .


(10)    MOSQUITO NETS

 

 

(10.  a.)         Bayer Develops an Improved Pre-Treated Mosquito Net, WHO defines a LLIN as a ready-to-use pre-treated mosquito net, which requires no further re-treatment during its expected lifespan. Bayer Environmental Science is of the opinion that this definition has to be adapted to reflect new technologies and the practical realities of the use of LLIN in the field. Link> http://www.bayeres.co.za/index.php?option=3&com_task=1&id=11&x=73
(10. b.)                      A Better Mosquito Net, Scientific American Magazine Copy/Paste; www.sciam.com/biology – Article Link>  60 cachedDec 28

 

 


(11)                HEALTH & OTHER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES & PRODUCTS

 

 

(11 . a.)         A diagnostic method for the detection of human malaria infections.

Patent Abstract Link>  Abstract | Drawing | Description | Claims

Specifically, blood samples are combined with a reagent containing 3-acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide (APAD), a substrate (e.g. a lactate salt or lactic acid), and a buffer. The reagent is designed to detect the presence of a unique glycolytic enzyme produced by the malaria parasite. … The reduced APAD may then be detected by various techniques, including spectral, fluorimetric, electrophoretic, or colorimetric analysis. Detection of the reduced APAD in the foregoing manner provides a positive indication of malaria infection. Patent number: 5124141, Filing date: Jun 14, 1990, Issue date: Jun 23, 1992, Inventor: Michael T. Makler, Assignee: Flow Incorporated, Primary Examiner: Gary E. Hollinden, U.S. Classification, 424/71; 424/9; 435/26; 435/28; 435/190; 435/808; 436/94; 514/44, International Classification, G01N 3315; G01N 3100; C12Q 132; C12Q 128

 

(11 . b.)         A Simple and Sensitive “Dip-Stick” Test in Serum Based on Lateral Flow Separation of Aptamer-Linked Nanostructures, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2006, 45, No. 47, 7956–7959, doi: 10.1002/anie.200603106 Citation: Yi Lu et al., Email: yi-lu@uiuc.edu

A team at the University of Illinois in Urbana has now laid the foundation for a new generation of rapid diagnostic tests that are as easy to handle as a pregnancy test: just dunk them in the sample and see if a colored band appears. These test strips are as reliable as laboratory methods. As a prototype, the researchers led by Yi Lu developed a test strip for the detection of cocaine in biological samples such as saliva, urine, and blood serum. “Our method is based on tiny gold spheres and aptamers,” reports Lu. Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acid molecules that bind to certain target molecules with the same strength and specificity as antibodies. From a large number of DNA strands with random sequences (a library), it is basically possible to find a suitable aptamer for almost every target molecule. … “Our method is universal,” stresses Lu. “Based on this principle, we should be able to develop rapid tests for the emergency diagnosis of a large number of drugs and poisons, as well as physiological molecules.
 

 

 

Note: The work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory.

 

 

(11. c.)                       FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS FOR DETECTION OF EXPOSURE TO BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS BY FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION IMMUNOASSAY OF SALIVA, ORAL OR BODILY FLUIDS Patent; (WO/2005/054854) – Link> (WO/2005/054854) FLUORESCENCE…   Therefore, its ruggedness in field settings, low cost, long reagent shelf life, ….. Third-world countries are sorely in need of a rapid, inexpensive TB … http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?wo=2005054854&IA=WO2005054854&DISPLAY=DESCFluorescence Polarization. Fluorescence polarization (hereinafter”FP”) is the process in which visible or ultraviolet light is polarized with a filter and shines on part of a molecule, the fluorochrome, that in turn fluoresces, emitting light of longer wavelength whose signal is captured and recorded. … Surprisingly, diagnostic assays utilizing saliva and other oral fluids appear as entries in the National Library of Medicine MEDLARS database with a frequency of only 1 in 30 and 1 in 100, respectively, when compared to entries in which blood serum is reported. …Using an under-utilized and elegant technology, fluorescence polarization, we have developed assays for accurate and rapid detection and diagnosis of antibodies to pathogens producing diseases of military and commercial interest. … Early instruments of such type required relatively high wattage, intense light sources, such as 200-250 watt mercury or xenon gas discharge lamps, … associated electronics … substantial cooling… to maintain the integrity of the optical system. …Thus, there is a need for improved fluorescence polarization instruments which are smaller, lighter, and operate using a battery pack or other low power DC power source; avoid the intrinsic background fluorescence and offer a simplified optics block design. …The inventive apparatus satisfies this need by providing a miniaturized, portable apparatus for measuring the fluorescence polarization of a liquid sample.

 

(11. d.)                      Fluorescent Intensity-based Differential Counting of FITC-dopedLink>

[PDF] Fluorescent Intensity-based Differential Counting of FITC-doped …

View as HTMLdiagnosis and monitoring in the third world and the region with few medical facilities. Then, it is necessary to use. portable diagnosis devices at low cost

 

(11. e)                        A study of fecal coliform sources at a … ; Marine Pollution Bulletin : Link> Marine Pollution Bulletin : A study of fecal coliform sources at a … Single scan emission spectra obtained with a scanning fluorometer …. of this approach as a rapid, inexpensive in situ optical method for assessing the …  .inkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0025326X07001725

 

(11. f)                        Leishmania amazonensis Fluorometric Assay – Link> Leishmania amazonensis  – … the Third World. The development of such a spectro-fluorometric assay for the protozoaninexpensive, and has potential for automation and high- … Link> www.springerlink.com/index/2XBL1TAQFNQVDJN0.pdf

 

(11. g).          A Tiny (Pathogen) Sensor Simply Made, Technology Review, Brittany Sauser, June 05, 2008 – A nanoscale biosensor that can detect minute amounts of pathogens could come to market this year. Researchers at NASA Ames Research Center have developed a nanotechnology-based biosensor that can detect trace amounts of as many as 25 different microorganisms simultaneously and within minutes. “By using the same reactor technology the semiconductor industry uses, we have created an innovative approach to manufacturing tiny sensors,” say Meyya Meyyappan, the chief scientist for the biosensor project. While NASA plans to eventually use the sensor to detect the presence of life on other planets, it has licensed the technology to Early Warning, a company based in Troy, NY, that develops systems to monitor biohazards. The company’s president, Neil Gordon, says that the first application for the sensor will be for water-quality monitoring, and a prototype of the technology will be tested at a series of demonstration sites this summer. Early Warning plans to have a commercial product by the end of the year. It has been known for almost a decade that carbon nanotubes and nanowires make good sensors, says Mark Reed, a professor of electrical engineering and applied physics at Yale University. …For one thing, the electronic and electrochemical approaches do not require the use of florescent chemical tags, says Charlie Johnson, a professor in the department of physics and astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania. Electrical signals are also easier to measure than optical ones, he says.

 

(11. h.)                      Early Warning, Inc. > Live link>  http://www.earlywarninginc.com/  Copy> http://www.earlywarninginc.com/ – General Inquiries, Email:  info@EarlyWarningInc.com ; Tel:      888-401-3834 ext.5224 (toll free); Mailing Address; Early Warning, Inc.; 320 Fifth Avenue, Troy, NY, 12182; Tel: 518-833-1205; Fax: 800-963-0431

 

 

 

 

 

            NASA Licenses Nanotechnology-Based Biosensor to Early Warning, May 20, 2008 – NASA’s Ames Research Center at Moffett Field in California has licensed its revolutionary nanotechnology-based biosensor technology to Early Warning, Inc. The biosensor can detect trace amounts of specific bacteria, viruses and parasites. Under a Reimbursable Space Act Agreement, NASA and Early Warning jointly will develop biosensor enhancements. Initially, the biosensor will be configured to detect the presence of common and rare strains of microorganisms associated with water-borne illnesses and fatalities.

 


(12)                  ORGANIZATIONS & COMPANIES OF POSSIBLE INTEREST

 

(12. a.)             Eco-Patent CommonsCorporations Go Public with Eco-Friendly Patents – Technology Transfer Tactics, April 2008 issue, Clickable Link >  Technology Transfer Tactics – Link>

http://www.wbcsd.org/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?type=DocDet&ObjectId=Mjc5OTk

Leading members of the corporate community have come together in a first-of-its-kind effort to help the environment, unleashing dozens of innovative, environmentally responsible patents to the public domain. Availability of these patents will encourage researchers, entrepreneurs and companies of all sizes in any industry to create, apply and further develop their consumer or industrial products, processes and services in a way that will help to protect and respect the environment. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and are initiating this effort in partnership with Nokia, Pitney Bowes and Sony. The pledged portfolio, dubbed the “Eco-Patent Commons“, is available on a dedicated, public website hosted by the WBCSD. Patents pledged to the Eco-Patent Commons — originally proposed at IBM’s Global Innovation Outlook conference — feature innovations focused on environmental matters and innovations in manufacturing or business processes where the solution provides an environmental benefit. For example, a company may pledge a patent for a manufacturing process that reduces hazardous waste generation, or energy or water consumption. A pledged patent covering a procurement or logistics solution may reduce fuel consumption. Examples of the environmental benefits expected for pledged patents include:

  • Energy conservation or improved energy or fuel efficiency
  • Pollution prevention (source reduction, waste reduction)
  • Use of environmentally preferable materials or substances
  • Water or materials use reduction
  • Increased recycling opportunity.

“The Eco-Patent Commons provides a unique and significant leadership opportunity for business to make a difference –- sharing their innovations and solutions in support of sustainable development,” said Bjorn Stigson, President of the WBCSD. “The Eco-Patent Commons also provides an opportunity for companies and other entities to identify areas of common interest and establish new relationships that can lead to further development in the patented technologies and elsewhere.” Membership in the Eco-Patent Commons is open to all individuals and companies pledging one or more patents. The selection and submission of each organization’s patents for pledging is at the organization’s discretion.

Comparison shopping for an IP exchange – There is no denying the appeal of an Internet-based matchmaking apparatus for IP — a place where TTOs can post their technologies and where interested corporations can find the inventions they need, resulting ultimately in a licensing agreement and royalty dollars for your university. In fact, the idea is so compelling that it has fueled the creation of dozens of Web-based IP exchanges in recent years. However, most of these efforts have generated mixed results thus far.

 

(12. b.)                      The Promise and Pitfalls of Using an IP Exchange, Clickable Link > The promise and pitfalls of using an IP exchange – Contact information for IP exchanges:

  1. iBridge Network – www.iBridgeNetwork.org – 800-573-5136 – info@iBridgeNetwork.org
  2. SparkIPwww.SparkIP.com – 404-477-2525 – contact@SparkIP.com
  3. TechTransferOnline – www.TechTransferOnline.com -248-593-5926 – info@TechTransferOnline.com
  4. TechEx – www.TechEx.com – 800-529-5337 – info@knowledgeexpress.com
  5. Yet2.com – www.Yet2.com – 866-938-2266 – info@Yet2.com
  6. The Dean’s Listwww.thedeanslist.com – 312-327-4400 – deanslist@oceantomo.com
  7. Flintboxwww.Flintbox.com – 604-678-9981 – support@Flintbox.com

 

(12. c.)             HORIZON International, Horizon Solutions Site, Link: http://www.solutions-site.org/artman/publish/ – The Solutions Site was created by HORIZON International, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, HORIZON’s colleagues at Harvard University, Yale University, and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada. The purpose of the site is to provide a forum for the presentation of solutions to vital concerns in the areas of health, population, development and the environment. Initatives are gathered through a number of different means, including direct user submissions, the substantial efforts of partner institutions, and HORIZON’s own research activities. Each case study is reviewed by one or more members of the HORIZON Scientific Review Board prior to its publication. By presenting the case studies on the Internet, the Solutions Site provides the means to encourage replication of the initiatives presented, and to foster the development of new ones. It is aimed at showcasing how learning, copying and mimicking the way nature has already solved many of the technological and sustainability problems confronting humankind and how that knowledge can be used for today and tomorrow’s economy.  According to Janine Benyus and Gunter Pauli, co-creators of the Nature’s 100 Best project, “Life solves its problems with well-adapted designs, life-friendly chemistry, and smart material and energy use.  What better models could there be?”

Natures 100 Best – (Link>) Nature’s 100 Best List, a mixture of innovations at various stages of commercialization from the drawing board to imminent arrival in the marketplace, is set to be completed by October 2008 in time for the IUCN Congress in Barcelona, Spain.  The Nature’s 100 Best book will be published in May 2009. Case studies from today’s preliminary launch and more details on Nature’s 100 Best are available at www.n100best.org. They include:

* Vaccines that survive without refrigeration based on Africa’s ‘resurrection’ plant;

* Friction-free surfaces suitable for modern electrical devices gleaned from the slippery skin of the Arabian Peninsula’s sandfish lizard;

 

(12. d.)                      Biomimicry Guild – The initiative is the brainchild of the (Link>)  Biomimicry Guild. – Information on the Biomimicry Guild and Institute are available at Link> www.biomimicryguild.com and www.biomimicryinstitute.com

“The Biomimicry Guild is the only innovation company in the world to use a deep knowledge of biological adaptations to help designers, engineers, architects, and business leaders solve design and engineering challenges sustainably.”

 

(12. e.)                      Collaborative Programs | Lighting Research – Link>  Collaborative Programs | Lighting Research Center – A number of low-cost and no-cost services are available, particularly to new and smaller companies. Some of these services may be provided by Linc – The Lighting Cultivator™, a non-profit corporation that works closely with the LRC’s Lighting Technology Greenhouse program. Contact Eugene Schuler. For more information about Linc, contact Eugene Schuler, Executive Director, at 518-424-7187 or email eschuler@lightingcultivator.org.

Lighting Technology Greenhouse (LTG) is a program of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Lighting Research Center (LRC). LTG promotes the growth and success of lighting-related businesses by acting as an interface for businesses to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and the commercialization of new lighting products and services that enhance sustainability and provide societal benefit. The only program of its type, LTG’s goal is to provide assistance in the establishment and growth of lighting-related companies. At the core of LTG are the Lighting Research Center and Linc – The Lighting CultivatorTM, a new, not-for-profit corporation. Linc provides the connection between the LRC and the private sector to advance commercialization of new lighting concepts.

Lighting Technology Greenhouse (LTG) provides a wealth of services, including: Lighting networking – Introductions and networking of commercialization players with a common interest in the growth of lighting-related businesses, including large lighting companies interested in acquiring smaller companies, entrepreneurs, inventors, investors, and existing small companies looking to grow their lighting-related businesses within and outside of New York State. Lighting IP inventory – An impressive inventory of lighting intellectual property developed by Rensselaer, public and private technical and research institutions, recently issued patents, and other promising lighting IP.

Assistance in identifying and securing funding opportunities – A list of federal, state, and regional funding opportunities, incentives, incubator space, and other inducements. In addition, LTG provides proposal planning, writing, and editing assistance to identify and secure funding on behalf of New York State lighting-related businesses. This includes team proposals between the LRC and New York State businesses for R&D, demonstration, as well as publicity of the developing technologies and/or services.

Lighting technical services – Technical and market assessment services to help companies benchmark and improve their products, provide due diligence for technical evaluations to potential investors, or document lighting product success stories. These include objective evaluation of lighting product performance claims, research and development in support of developing products or services, development of performance specifications, field demonstrations, and focus groups.

 

(12. f.)                       Pluck and ImaginovaOver the coming year, Pluck and Imaginova will work together to implement additional social media features to the network, including Imaginova’s eCommerce sites. The new features will include reader blogs and an upgraded version of the current Amazing Images section where community members can upload their own photos.

About Pluck Corporation – Pluck Site> www.pluck.com.Pluck Corporation social media solutions empower leading media companies, brand marketers, and retailers to integrate open content, community and social networking into their web properties driving audience traffic and revenue. Clients include CBC, Circuit City, Discovery Communications, The Economist, FOX News, Gannett, Scotts, and The Washington Post. Awards include a Red Herring 100 and AlwaysOn Media 100. Pluck is based in Austin, Texas and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Demand Media.

            About Imaginova – Click to visit www.Imaginova.com. Imaginova Corp 212-703-5800; Contact: Emily Zyborowicz; P: 212-703-5873 E: ezyborowicz@imaginova.comImaginova is a leading digital media and commerce company and the preeminent online destination for the Intellectually Curious. The Imaginova Network of media properties, including (copy)> LiveScience.com, Space.com, Aviation.com, Newsarama.com and Space News (SpaceNews.com), delivers engaging and entertaining editorial and multimedia content to a robust community of curious and well-informed users. Imaginova’s original content is syndicated through major online portals and licensed by educational publishers and institutions. Imaginova is also the premier source of innovative consumer and educational products available at OrionTelescopes.com, LiveScienceStore.com, and StarryNightStore.com.

 

 

 

 

 

 


(13)                BEHAVIOR, BIOLOGY & EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANOPHELES

 

 

(13. a.)                      Factors Affecting the Vectorial Competence of Anopheles Gambiae, Vector Biology,  The Trustee of the Wellcome Trust, 2007, Reviewed by: Dr J Lines,  Disease Control & Vector Biology Unit,London School of Hygiene& Tropical  Medicine,London, UK;  Link> [PDF] Factors affecting the vectorial competence of Anopheles …

Behavior – Female mosquitoes exhibit an ability to locate humans and other animals when they need to take a blood meal. They also show strong preferences for human blood or that of particular animals. A detailed understanding of the receptors and molecules involved in these processes could be exploited to develop:· repellentsto keep mosquitoes away from humans and prevent disease               · attractantsto lure mosquitoes to traps and thus reduce disease transmission· confusantsto ‘confuse’ mosquitoes so that they do not recognize appropriate targets, or take blood for less appropriate targets

 

One important behavioral factor is the degree to which an Anopheles species prefers to feed on humans (anthropophily) or animals such as cattle (zoophily). Anthrophilic Anopheles are more likely to transmit the malaria parasites from one person to another. Most Anopheles mosquitoes are not exclusively anthropophilic or zoophilic. However, the primary malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae and An. funestus, are strongly anthropophilic and, consequently, are two of the most efficient malaria vectors in the world. Over 70% of the 500 million malaria cases that occur every year worldwide and even a higher fraction of the mortality burden are concentrated in tropical Africa [1]. Malaria transmission is driven by the mosquito vector system, which in most of sub-Saharan Africa consists of three primary species, namely Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus. Both An. gambiae and An. funestus are further subdivided into semi-isolated populations, typically referred to as forms [29].

 

Life Span – Once ingested by a mosquito, malaria parasites must undergo development within the mosquito before they are infectious to humans. The time required for development in the mosquito (the extrinsic incubation period) ranges from 10-21 days, depending on the parasite species and the temperature. If a mosquito does not survive longer than the extrinsic incubation period, then she will not be able to transmit any malaria parasites. It is not possible to measure directly the life span of mosquitoes in natures. But indirect estimates of daily survivorship have been made for several Anopheles species. Estimates of daily survivorship of An. gambiae in Tanzania ranged from 0.77 to 0.84 meaning that at the end of one day between 77% and 84% will have survived. (Charlwood et al., 1997, Survival And Infection Probabilities of Anthropophagic Anophelines From An Area of High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans, Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87, 445-453).

Assuming this is constant through the adult life of a mosquito, less than 10% of female An. gambiae would survive longer than a 14-day extrinsic incubation period. If daily survivorship increased to 0.9, over 20% of mosquitoes would survive longer than a 14-day extrinsic incubation period. Control measures that rely on insecticides (e.g. indoor residual spraying) may actually impact malaria transmission more through their effect on adult longevity than through their effect on the population of adult mosquitoes.

 

Patterns of Feeding And Resting – Most Anopheles mosquitoes are crepuscular (active at dusk or dawn) or nocturnal (active at night). Some Anopheles mosquitoes feed indoors (endophagic) while others feed outdoors (exophagic). After blood feeding, some Anopheles mosquitoes prefer to rest indoors (endophilic) while others prefer to rest outdoors (exophilic). Biting by nocturnal, endophagic Anopheles mosquitoes can be markedly reduced through the use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) or through improved housing construction to prevent mosquito entry (e.g. window screens). Endophilic mosquitoes are readily controlled by indoor spraying of residual insecticides. In contrast, exophagic/exophilic vectors are best controlled through source reduction (destruction of the breeding sites)

An. gambiae s.s. may require multiple meals to complete egg development because of nutritional stress during immature development (Gillies 1954; Takken, Klowden and Chambers 1998). Although the timing of blood-feeding is genetically fixed, the extensive use of insecticide-impregnated bednets, preventing the mosquitoes from obtaining a blood meal, may select for anophelines that feed at other times, for instance in the early evening when people have not yet gone to bed (M. Yohannes unpublished data). So far the evidence for such a behavioural adaptation is scarce (Takken 2002).

 

Larval habitats – A characteristic of the An. gambiae complex is that these pioneer species occupy temporary aquatic habitats (Gillies, De Meillon and Coetzee 1968). Small, flooded depressions in the soil, hoofprints, tyre tracks and shallow ditches are used for oviposition. This strategy of population development probably reduces the risk of predation for the vulnerable immature stages of the mosquitoes. However, predation can take a heavy toll on mosquitoes (Lacey and Lacey 1990), and the loss of

immature stages of An. gambiae s.s. can reach almost 100% (Service 1993). Although

An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis commonly share a larval habitat (White and

Rosen 1973), An. gambiae s.s. usually outcompetes An. arabiensis when they occur

together (Schneider, Takken and McCall 2000; Koenraadt and Takken 2003).

 

House-entering behaviour – Most people get infected with malaria in the home. An. gambiae s.s. is extremely well-adapted for entering houses and feeding on people (Gillies, De Meillon and Coetzee 1968). They do so at night, when individuals are asleep and least able to protect themselves. This ability to get indoors arises from a simple change in behaviour. When most mosquitoes come in contact with a wall they fly off sideways. But when An.  gambiae s.l. mosquitoes reach a wall, they fly up and are funnelled, by the over-hanging eaves, inside the house through the gap at the top of the wall (Snow, 1987). The number of mosquitoes entering through open eaves is probably greatly enhanced by attractive warm host odours pouring out of the openings.

 

Feeding behaviour – An. gambiae is a nocturnal feeder, with most of the blood-feeding occurring after midnight (Haddow 1954; Lindsay et al. 1989). Once they have reached a host, the mosquitoes will preferentially bite and feed off the lower parts of the body (Braack et al. 1994; De Jong and Knols 1995). During a gonotrophic cycle, normally one blood

 

Biting behaviour – Mosquito biting patterns are: regular· highly synchronized· controlled by endogenous (circadian) rhythms. The major vectors globally have their main biting activity in the middle or late parts of the evening, while the other Anopheles species feed either early on or more or less evenly throughout the night. Late feeding is commonly associated with vector efficiency and thetransmission of malaria because:· it ensures a more intimate relationship with humans, ie. sleeping hosts are less easily disturbed – activity of humans during the evening may prevent successful attacks by mosquitoes. There are considerable differences in biting behaviour among members of the gambiaecomplex, which may cause segregation of the species at this stage of the life cycle. Female An. gambiae s.s. are highly anthropophilic, feeding preferentially on humans (White 1974; Coluzzi et al. 1979), although in West Africa they are less discriminating and will feed readily on other animals like horses and cattle (Diatta et al. 1998; Bøgh et al. 2001). In contrast An. arabiensis has a more opportunistic feeding behaviour, although An. arabiensis can be entirely zoophilic, as recent studies from Madagascar have shown (Duchemin et al. 2001). In general An. gambiae s.s. has, on account of its high anthropophily, developed a strong tendency for endophagy and endophily, whereas the more zoophilic An. arabiensis tends to be more exophagic and exophilic. Although it is recognized that the anthropophilic behaviour of An. gambiae s.s. and the opportunistic behaviours of An. arabiensis are genetically fixed (Coluzzi et al. 2002), it is not well understood which factors determine temporal or spatial variations in these behaviours. For these reasons it is necessary to establish the behavioural characteristics of the vector population of specific study areas when measuring epidemiological parameters.

 

Resting behaviour – Following a blood meal, females of An. gambiae tend to settle on walls and ceilings of rooms in which they acquired the blood. Eggs are developed during this time, and when these are mature, the female will leave the house in the early evening in search for a suitable oviposition site. This resting phase may take up to 72 hours. Mainly unfed females leave the house in the early morning, presumably to rest in the vegetation nearby. Exophilic species such as An. arabiensis tend to spend more time outdoors, while strongly endophilic species like An. gambiae s.s. may remain indoors for the duration of egg development and maturation. The conventional insecticidal treatment of houses was designed to kill the indoor resting fraction of the malaria vector population, and often with success (Najera 1989). Ecological and epidemiological studies of malaria vectors may collect indoor-resting females to assess biting behaviour, age structure of the vector population, parasite infection rates and other relevant parameters that might be useful in the assessment of malaria risk.

Special attention should be paid to the resting behaviour of female mosquitoes during the dry season. It is assumed that a proportion of adult females survives the often

harsh climatic conditions of the dry season, when there is no opportunity to deposit

eggs because of lack of larval habitats, inside traditional African huts. Here they find

shelter in cracks and crevices in the walls, apparently favoured by a local microclimate that allows survival(Molineaux and Gramiccia 1980).

 

Biting intensity, and therefore malaria risk, can vary considerably within a village. Houses close to larval habitats experience significantly higher biting rates than houses farther away (Lindsay et al. 1995; Smith et al. 1995; Lindsay et al. 2000). House design and personal protection matters may also vary within a village, causing strong variations in biting rates between households and, sometimes, within families (Lindsay, Emerson and Charlwood 2002). Mosquitoes locate their (human) hosts chiefly by host odours, and variability in these odours between humans is a well-known factor determining mosquito biting rates (Schreck, Kline and Carlson1990; Lindsay et al. 1993; Knols, De Jong and Takken 1995; Lindsay, Emerson and Charlwood 2002).

 

Human blood index – Epidemiological studies use the avidity with which malaria vectors bite humans as a factor to estimate the daily transmission rate of malaria parasites. This factor depends on the density of hungry adult female mosquitoes and the fraction of them that bite humans (Garrett-Jones 1964). The difference in host preference between An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, with the former strongly anthropophilic and the latter opportunistic, makes An. gambiae s.s. a better malaria vector (White 1974; Costantini et al. 1996). For this reason epidemiological field studies measure the proportion of blood-fed mosquitoes that have human blood in their midgut. With An. gambiae this figure varies from 0.49 to 0.98 (Garrett-Jones, Boreham and Pant 1980), while for An. arabiensis this is usually lower. However, there are exceptions. In Senegal, An. gambiae s.s. was reported to feed almost exclusively on cattle (Diatta et al. 1998), and on Sao Tomé it was found to prefer dogs above humans (Sousa et al. 2001). In Mali and Burkina Faso An. arabiensis has exhibited a high degree of anthropophily (Costantini et al. 1998; Lemasson et al. 1997). It is assumed that environmental, human and environmental factors that may affect mosquito biting rate factors influence the observed local variations in anthropophily. For instance the relatively high density of cattle in West Africa coupled with house construction and high use of untreated bed nets may affect the degree of anthropophily (Bøgh et al. 2001).

 

Survival strategies – Entomological inoculation rate (EIR) – The central goal of malaria control is to reduce the number of potential new infections that people receive from mosquito bites in order to reduce morbidity and mortality (Framework for monitoring progress and evaluating outcomes and impact: roll back malaria 2000). This goal could, in theory, be readily achieved with the advent of DDT in the middle of the twentieth century. The reduction of mosquito survival by the toxic action of insecticides was the most obvious target in the equation of the basic reproductive rate of malaria (Macdonald 1957). For a number of reasons this goal could not be met, and today careful consideration is given to aspects of the parasite-vector-host interaction that might explain malaria risk and unravel specific aspects of this relationship that are more amenable for intervention (Greenwood and Mutabingwa 2002).

The EIR is used as the parameter with which the best strategy for malaria interventions can be developed. Annual values of EIR within Africa vary from as low as 0.1 to >1000 depending on the eco-epidemiological conditions of a locality (Hay et al. 2000; Smith, Leuenberger and Lengeler 2001). Generally in Africa when the EIR <10, an area is considered to have unstable malaria and when EIR >100, malaria is stable. Areas with EIR values in between these extremes will vary in malaria endemicity, depending on environmental and demographic conditions such as rainfall, vegetation cover, human-population density and land use patterns.

The pattern of clinical malaria differs according to the level of exposure to malaria parasites (Snow et al. 1994). In areas of intense challenge most children are infected before the age of 6 months, and severe malaria is manifest as anaemia in infants and is responsible for a great many deaths. In areas of less intense transmission cerebral

malaria is a greater killer in 2-3-year-old children. Those that survive the early years

of childhood develop protective immunity against both clinical malaria and infection.

In marked contrast in areas of low transmission both children and adults are at risk of severe complications. In areas where extreme gradients in exposure exist there can be marked differences in clinical malaria, even in rural areas (Clarke et al. 2002). It

follows that malaria risk across Africa is highly dynamic, and classical risk maps may

need to be adapted to account for local variations caused by environmental conditions.

 

Malaria interventions are aimed at lowering the force of transmission by a reduction in infectious mosquito bites. Paradoxically, this strategy may enhance malaria risk rather than reduce it, because of a transition from stable to unstable malaria (Greenwood 1996). Recent studies have estimated how much reduction of EIR must be achieved in order to control malaria successfully (Snow and Marsh 1995; 1998; Trape and Rogier 1996; Smith, Leuenberger and Lengeler 2001). However, because the relationship between EIR and malaria morbidity and mortality is determined by factors such as the immune status of the human host, the vectorial competence of the vector and the virulence of the parasite, it has been impossible to make accurate predictions of malaria risk. Nevertheless, for lack of anything better, values of the EIR are widely used to estimate the risk of malaria throughout Africa (Rogers et al. 2002). Outside this continent the EIR is difficult to estimate with any precision because of low vector densities and the predominantly zoophilic nature of many vectors.

Because the ecological factors that determine EIR are not well understood, it

cannot be predicted at present what the outcome of a transgenic mosquito release will

be on this epidemiological parameter. In areas with multiple vectors, neutralising one

vector species by introgression of a transgenic trait for resistance to the parasite may

create a niche for a rare parasite strain, adapted to a different vector species, to

exploit, thus removing the advantage created by the introduction of the transgene. The

EIR may then not change much, having a minimal impact on malaria risk. On the

other hand, a highly successful effect of the transgenic release may reduce the EIR to

such low levels that the immune status of the human host is compromised, leading to

more severe and complicated malaria than before. In general it is thought that the

latter situation would not be serious provided adequate health care is available.

Vectorial competence and spatial variations

The important role of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis as vectors of malaria in

Africa, as discussed in the sections above, can only be explained by the high

competence of these mosquito species for the uptake, development and transmission

of P. falciparum. This ‘vectorial competence’ is determined by intrinsic and extrinsic

factors such as the insect’s physiology, anti-parasite defence system, biting and

resting behaviour and the microclimate of its habitat. The intrinsic factors are of

course genetically determined, while the extrinsic factors will vary spatially. Thus, at

the limit of malaria distribution it will often be the temperatures or absence of rain

that affect the vectorial competence. This will create areas with ‘anophelism without

malaria’, mainly because of the high temperatures that do not allow for development

of the Plasmodium parasite (Lindsay et al. 1991).

 Why are more than 80% of malaria deaths in Africa?                More than 80% of malaria deaths are in Africa because:· the main vector is An. gambiae – a more efficient vector than those in other tropical continents               · the environment is conducive to vector breeding· the predominant species of malaria parasite is P. falciparum – drug resistance is common· African health systems are often poorer and weaker than those in other tropical countries                It’s important to study vector behaviour so that any control measure can be correctly targeted. Depending on the control method, it can be important to know the local vector’s:               · feeding behaviour, ie: endophagic or exophagic               · resting behaviour, ie. endophilic or exophilic               · breeding sites               Feeding behaviourFeeding behaviors that influence vector efficiency include:· how often mosquitoes bite – some species feed more frequently than others. The more regularly a mosquito bites the more likely it is to:               – become infected               – pass on the infection· who they bite – availability of blood meals and genetically determined preferences influence anthropophilic behaviour (taking blood meals from humans)                Gonotrophic cycle: feeding behaviourThe times and places of biting have important epidemiological consequences.                Mosquito species may bite:                               · indoors – endophagic                               · outside – exophagic                Engorged females immediately fly to a safe resting site. Species may rest:                               · indoors – endophilic                               · outside – exophilic Important information                It’s is important to investigate mosquito adult behaviour locally, to understand the habits, hosts and resting sites before starting local vector control operations. For example, control programs based on residual insecticide spraying of the interior surfaces of houses are unlikely to be effective against exophilic mosquitoes. Common outdoor mosquito resting sites include the ceilings of houses and nearby dense vegetation and trees during daytime.                Endophagic – There are no mosquito species which are entirely endophagic. The most important endophagic malaria vector, An. gambiae s.s. in Africa:· bites indoors after midnight (24:00 – 03:00) – the biting rate increases progressively through the night but declines in the two hours before dawn· puts all household members at risk unless they are protected by sleeping under a bednet                Exophagic – Most efficient Anopheles malaria vectors are endophagic and anthropophilic, especially the main vectors of tropical Africa, eg. An. funestus and An. gambiae. However, some important malaria vectors are quite exophagic, for example An. albimanus in Central America, which:               · bites outside early in the evening (19:00 – 21:00)· puts all the local community equally at risk from infective bites unless they are inside In the wild: However, active humans outside of the house may prevent successful attacks by mosquitoes. · the mortality rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is – to a first approximation – constant at all ages (ie. older mosquitoes do not die at a significantly higher rate than younger mosquitoes)· disease transmission is not possible if mosquito longevity is less than the time required for the development of the parasite Transmission of malaria depends on many factors, that include the number of:               · infected mosquitoes that live through the extrinsic cycle (sporogony)               · days each infectious mosquito lives after this                For example, the aim of residual insecticide spraying of the inside of houses is to kill the majority of adult female mosquitoes before they reach the age of infectivity.                               The parous rate describes the number of female mosquitoes in a population that have laid eggs, at least once in their life time. This is epidemiologically important because:               · parous females are potential vectors of malaria               · nulliparous females cannot be vectors of malaria                              The parous rate is also used for age-grading a mosquito population. Again, this is a valuable measure because the older a female mosquito gets, the more likely she is to be infected with malaria parasites and capable of transmitting disease. How do mosquitoes survive harsh conditions? LongevityMosquito longevity, or length of life, is the most important factor for vector efficiency at malaria transmission.To transmit malaria, an infected mosquito has to survive for at least the duration of the extrinsic cycle (the incubation period of the parasite in the vector). The extrinsic cycle lasts over 10 days, during which the female mosquito has a daily mortality rate of 5 – 25% from:                               · predation                               · desiccation                               · swatting AdultsThe aim of control measures against adults is to:                               · increase the daily mortality rate of female Anopheles                               · prevent the females living long enough to become infective                               · reduce the lifespan of those that are infected Resting sitesThe resting site is often dark with a degree of humidity which provides a suitable microclimate for the mosquito. Engorged females immediately fly to a safe resting site to:                               · digest the blood-meal                               · develop the eggs and become gravid                              Indoor resting sites – Mosquitoes are often found inside houses resting on:                               · clothing hanging on a wall                               · the back or underside of furniture                               · the eaves                              Outdoor resting sites –  It is more common for mosquitoes to rest in secluded places outside. Outdoor shelters include:                               · clumps of vegetation, eg:                               – grass               – reeds- rice                               · rodent burrows· hollow trees                               · rock crevices                               · man-made structures, eg:                               – animal sheds                               – empty buildings Occupational risksOccupational risks occur when people are exposed to the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes due to the time and nature of their work, eg. workers who sleep at night in temporary shelters near fields.

 

People –

  1. of inhabitants

age/sex

occupation

health care

 

Housing –

personal protection (bed nets, smoke, repellent)

rooftype (grass/metal/tiles)

brickwall / wattle / adobe

presence of eaves

  1. of windows and doors

 

Environment –

animals

animal housing

  1. of domestic animals

animal species

distance to larval habitat

vegetation

rice field

land use

rainfall

temperature

solar radiation

 

 


( 14 )  GENERAL INFORMATION/NOTES FROM WEB & MISC. SOURCES

 

… In another study, Schall (1992) demonstrated that another species of malarial parasite

allowed coexistence of two species of Caribbean Anolis lizards (in the absence of the parasite only one species of lizard occurs, but if this species of lizard is parasitized, the other lizard species can coexist with it)…

Dragonflies (Order Odonata) are often called Mosquito Hawks. Immature dragon fly larvae “naiads,” are also voracious predators of mosquito larvae. Other Misc. From Random Sites: The horrible whining noise which can be as severe a torment as the sting is caused by vibration of the halteres (modified hind wings) when thee fly. Wing beat toneThe wing beat tone of females:· is a result of the wing-beat frequency· varies considerably between species· is within the range 200 – 600 Hz· is 100 – 200 Hz lower than that of conspecific males Re: Electronic Mosquito-Killing Products Fly Patrol – flying insect control solutions are designed to attract and kill flies primarily, however, the fly patrol will attract and kill other flying insects. Flying insects are attracted by UV light and a sticky-tack trap, baited with fly pheromones. Once attracted, the flies are drawn internal to the trap, where they are then trapped and killed. The trapping process occurs inside the unit and is not visual.  Fly Patrol flying insect control devices are designed for indoor use only. MosquitoControl is a sonic repeller using dragonfly and male mosquito wing beat frequencies. $15-$25 at 1-800-669-0987.  Re: Biological Mosquito Control Overseas there are biological controls available, such as a strain of the common Bacillus thuringiensis (sold as Dipel). I am not aware that the anti-mozzy strain, Bacillus thuringiensis var isrealii is available in Australia. It is very effective, but lasts for only three days and must be reapplied regularly. Stock a pond with fish such as goldfish and freshwater minnows (Gambusia affinis). they both eat mosquito larvae.  Bats make the best mosquito predators. Fit bat boxes or leave hollow limbs in trees to encourge them.  Dragonflies and Damselflies also do a very fine job, especially their aquatic larvae.  Other predators include frogs, lizards, small spiders, ground beetles, praying mantis (small, immature phase) and small birds. Natural Predators; bat, dragonfly, damselfly, praying mantis, toads, birds, and fish populations that prey on mosquitoes.  A mouse eared bat can eat 600 mosquitoes a minute.  A dragonfly can eat up to 100 mosquitoes in one forage.

Paramecia have elaborated some cilia into trichocysts, tiny pointed filaments that can be fired at a predator. Each trichocyst point has barbs like a harpoon. The most common forms of defense, however, is by chemical signals released into water. This is an emerging area of study. Little is known about it yet.

 

Mating usually occurs during flight. The males:· are attracted to the tone of the female wing beat· have antennae which act as sound receptors· grasp a female with their fore legs· lock their genitalia into that of the female During copulation, the males of some Anopheles species insert a gelatinous plug which acts as a physical barrier to other males. Females will often store the male sperm in their spermatheca until oocysts are ready to be fertilized. Culicine mosquitoes mating. Some species of mosquito are difficult to colonize in the laboratory and artificial insemination may be used.

 

   Anophelines – Like all mosquitoes, anophelines go through four stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The first three stages are aquatic and last 5-14 days, depending on the species and the ambient temperature. The larvae spend most of their time feeding on algae, bacteria, and other microorganisms in the surface micro-layer.

               Resting Most of an adult mosquito vector’s time is occupied while resting after blood feeding to develop its eggs.               Targets for Vector Control – Adults – Adult mosquito vectors are targeted when resting. The control methods are selected according to the resting habitats and activities of the vector.               Residual spraying – Residual insecticide sprayed on the walls and ceilings of houses kills resting endophilic mosquitoes and can lower the incidence of malaria by reducing the:  life span of adult females – degree of mosquito-human contact -· mosquito population. It is important to know the preferred resting sites of the targeted vector so that valuable insecticide is not wasted.               Space spraying – Space spraying releases insecticide into the air as smoke or fine droplets and kills mosquitoes in the locality.               ITNs – Treated nets act as a form of vector control when enough people in the community are using them.                Residual activity – Insecticide sprayed onto indoor walls should remain active for 3 – 6 months and may be effective for 12 months in favorable circumstances.               Space spraying – Space spraying is no longer widely recommended. If used, it:·should be reserved for epidemics, eg. spraying round dwellings or outside breeding sites, because: – operational costs are high – residual effect is low · will rapidly reduce the numbers of mosquitoes · must be frequently repeated to result in any significant effect· must coincide with the peak activities of the vectors.                Biological Larvicides – The most useful biological larvicides are the bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; B. sphaericusThese agents, which are safe to wildlife generally: are sprayed onto the water surface· are ingested by mosquito larvae; are activated in the gut; have low persistence.               Chemical larvicides – Insecticides may be formulated for quick or slow release and applied as: · sprayable, wettable powders· pellets · granules. Most of the chemical insecticides act on the nervous system of the larvae and must be readily absorbed through the insect cuticle. However, some larvicides are juvenile hormone mimics (eg. methoprene, pyriproxyfen), that prevent the development of: · larvae into pupae · pupae into adults

            Larvivorous fish – Larvivorous fish eat the mosquito vector larvae and have been used in: · urban settings in confined water containers, eg. Anopheles stephensi in Bombay, India · ponds deep enough to allow fish to breed. Larvivorous fish lowered in a net into an open well in India will eat the mosquito larvae that develop in this potential mosquito breeding site.

 

 

Miscellany:

 

Netlogo Simulation Bite-Model (opens online in a JAVA Browser): Humans & Mosquitoes in a Room – also see page (28);  Click-on Link >  malaria

 

 

 

Must-read book title: The Logic of Failure, Recognizing & Avoiding Error in Complex Situations, by Dietrich Dorner; (www.basicbooks.com)

 

 

 

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